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35个托福阅读经典长难句解析(下部)

2015-10-23 16:53 三立在线 admin

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摘要:经常有一些基础很弱的同学在阅读托福文章的过程中喜欢把所有生词的汉语意思全查出来,但是做题的正确率依然很低。当这些独立的单词组合成一句长难句的时候就看不懂了,也就是长难句分析能力太差。

  长难句分析能力差不仅会影响阅读速度和阅读准确性,而且还会影响某些题型的正确率。因为在托福阅读十大题型当中,句子简化题、事实信息题和推理题这几种题型都直接或间接地在考察学生分析长难句的能力。在面对长难句时,考生一定不能只见单词,不见结构,句子主干部分永远比修饰部分要重要。

  16、To appreciate fully the diversity and abundance of life in the sea,it helps to think small.

  (特殊结构it helps to…做…有帮助)

  【译句】要充分认识海洋生命的多样性和丰富性,从小的角度思考有帮助。

  目的状语:To appreciate fully the diversity and abundance of life in the sea,主句: it helps to think small. (这里的it是形式主语,没有实际意义)

  17、Science is built with facts just as a house is built with bricks,but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.

  (特殊结构not any more than像…一样不…)

  【译句】科学建立在事实上,就像房子用砖砌成一样。但收集的事实不能被叫做科学,就像一堆砖不能被称为房子一样。

  分句1: Science is built with facts

  分句2: just as a house is built with bricks,

  分句3: but a collection of facts cannot be called science any more than a pile of bricks can be called a house.

  这句话的难点在于“not ... any more than 像…一样不…”,相当于“a pile of bricks cannot be called a house",

  18、In a period characterized by the abandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth,Donald Barthelme,and Thomas Pynchon, Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedly old-fashioned in her insistence on the essentially mimetic quality of her fiction.

  (特殊结构characterized by…——以…为特征)

  【译句】尽管处于一个以抛弃大量现实主义传统(以作家约翰•巴思、唐纳德•巴塞尔姆和托马斯.品钦为代表)为特征的时代,乔伊斯•卡罗尔•欧茨因为坚持自己小说本质上模仿的特点,有时候看起来是一个坚定的守旧派。

  分句1. characterized by the abandonment of so much of the realistic tradition by authors such as John Barth,Donald Barthelme,and Thomas Pynchon,

  分句2. Joyce Carol Oates has seemed at times determinedly old-fashioned in her insistence OD the essentially mimetic quality of her fiction.

  分句1 做时间状语“In a period”的后置定语,补充修饰period,相当于省略了 “which was”的定语从句。 分句2 是主句。

  整个句子的难点在于找主句。 其实分句1的末尾是 "such as" 引导的三个人名的并列,在最后一个人名Thomas Pynchon前有"and", 说明这个列举对象中的最后一个。所以整个句子的主干在T P 这个人后面出现。

  19、If it were not for this faculty, they would devour all the food available in short time and would probably starve themselves out of existence.

  (虚拟语气)

  【译句】如果不是具有这种能力,它们就会在短时间内吞掉所有能得到的食物,而且很可能会因饿死而灭绝。

  分句1. If it were not for this faculty

  分句2. they would devour all the food available in short time

  分句3. would probably starve themselves out of existence

  分句1 是虚拟语气的条件从句

  分句2、3是并列关系,并且是主句。

  20、People in the United States in the nineteenth century were haunted by the prospect that unprecedented change in the nation's economy would bring social chaos.

  (同位语从句prospect that…)

  【译句】19世纪的美国人因为害怕国家经济中史无前例的变化会带来社会混乱这一前景而提心吊胆。

  分句1. People in the United States in the nineteenth century were haunted by the prospect;

  分句2. that unprecedented change in the nation's economy would bring social chaos.

  2嵌套在1中,做1中prospect 的同位语从句;1是主句,2 具体解释说明 prospect。

  21、Accompanying that growth was a structural change that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift in the nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and other nonagricultural pursuits.

  (倒装Accompanying that growth was a structural change that…=A structural change…was accompanying that growth)

  【译句】伴随着这一增长的是一个结构变化,它以经济的不断多样化和国家劳动力从农业到制造业和其他非农业职业的逐渐转化为特征。

  分句1. Accompanying that growth was a structural change

  分句2. that featured increasing economic diversification and a gradual shift in the nation's labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and other nonagricultural pursuits

  2嵌套在1中,做1中的structural change 的定语从句,这个定语从句结构较复杂,由两个and连接三个并列的名词性成分。

  分句1是主句,且采用完全倒装的形式。

  22、As the roles men and women played in society became more rigidly defined, so did the roles they played in the home.

  (倒装so did…)

  【译句】随着男人和女人在社会中扮演的角色被限定得更加严格,他们在家中的角色也是如此。

  分句1. the roles became more rigidly defined

  分句2. men and women played in society

  分句3. so did the roles

  分句4. they played in the home.

  1和2嵌套,2是修饰1中的role 的定语从句。 3和4嵌套,4是3中的roles的。

  1和3并列,3是由so引导的部分倒装句。

  23、Surrounding the column are three sepals and three petals,sometimes easily recognizable as such,often distorted into gorgeous,weird,but always functional shapes.

  (倒装Surrounding the column are…)

  【译句】围绕着蕊柱的是三个萼片和三个花瓣,有时很容易辨认出来,但经常被扭成华丽、奇特但总是有用的形状。

  完全倒装句,正常语序是:

  Three sepals and three petals are surrounding the column, sometimes easily recognizable as such,often distorted into gorgeous,weird,but always functional shapes.

  24、With the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War and the economic boom that followed it,young people married and established households earlier and began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression.

  (倒装than had their predecessors—比较结构的第二部分)

  【译句】随着二战带来的持续繁荣以及随之而来的经济增长,年轻人比大萧条中的同龄人结婚成家更早,而且养育的家庭比他们的前辈更大。

  分句1. the growing prosperity brought on by the Second World War

  分句2. the economic boom that followed it

  分句3. young people married and established households earlier

  分句4. began to raise larger families than had their predecessors during the Depression.

  1和2并列,3和4并列

  1和2 是伴随状语

  3和4是主句

  25、The railroad could be and was a despoiler of nature;furthermore,in its manifestation of speed and noise,it might be a despoiler of human nature as well.

  (关联结构could be and was)

  【译句】铁路可以,事实上也是自然的掠夺者;而且,在其速度和噪音的表现上也可能是人性的掠夺者。

  分句1. The railroad could be and was a despoiler of nature

  分句2. it might be a despoiler of human nature as well.

  1和2 是并列 (由分号连接的两个并列分句)。

  26、In the railroads' prime years,between 1 890 and 1920,there were a few individuals in the United States,most of them with solid railroading experience behind them,who made a profession of writing about railroading--works offering the ambience of stations,yards,and locomotive cabs.

  (同位语most of them;定语从句who made a profession of writing)

  【译句】在1890年到1920年间铁路的黄金时期,美国有几个人(他们大多有丰富的铁路经验)以写铁路题材为职业——作品围绕车站、停车场和机车。

  分句1. there were a few individuals in the United States

  分句2. most of them with solid railroading experience behind them

  分句3. who made a profession of writing about railroading

  分句4. works offering the ambience of stations,yards,and locomotive cabs.

  1是主句

  2和3是嵌套

  2作为1中a few individuals 的同位语,对它进一步解释说明

  27、On the other hand,when it comes to substantive--particularly behavioral-information,crows are less well known than many comparably common species and,for that matter,not a few quite uncommon ones:the endangered California condor,to cite one obvious example.

  (特殊结构for that matter)

  【译句】另一方面,当涉及实质性的,特别是行为方面的信息时,乌鸦就不如许多比较而言很普通的鸟类那样为人所知;而且,也不如许多很不寻常的鸟类,举一个明显的例子,如像濒危的加利福尼亚大秃鹫那样为人所知。

  分句1. when it comes to substantive--particularly behavioral-information;

  分句2. crows are less well known than many comparably common species and, for that matter,not a few quite uncommon ones:the endangered California condor,to cite one obvious example.

  1和2是并列, 分句1是时间状语, 2是主句,其中包含插入语结构 以及 冒号连接的解释说明的成分。

  28、Keen observers and quick learners,they are astute about the intentions of other creatures,including researchers,and adept at avoiding them.

  (并列同位语keen observers and quick learners)

  【译句】乌鸦是敏锐的观察家和快捷的学习者,它们对其他生物(包括研究人员)的意图感觉非常敏锐,并且善于躲开它们。

  分句1. they are astute about the intentions of other creatures,including researchers;

  分句2. and adept at avoiding them.

  1和2是并列。 句子开头的“keen observers and quick learners”是主语 they的同位语。

  29、These researchers have sought to demonstrate that their work can be a valuable tool not only of science but also of history,providing flesh insights into the daily lives of ordinary people whose existences might not otherwise be so well documented.

  (宾语从句demonstrate that…;特殊结构otherwise)

  【译句】这些研究人员已经力图证实他们的工作不仅可以成为科学而且还是历史的宝贵工具,为了解普通人的日常生活提供崭新的观点,否则这些普通人的生存状态不可能被记载得这么好。

  分句1:These researchers have sought to demonstrate that;

  分句2:their work can be a valuable tool not only of science but also of history;

  分句3:providing flesh insights into the daily lives of ordinary people;

  分句4:whose existences might not otherwise be so well documented.

  分句1是整个长句子的主句

  分句2是分句1的宾语从句

  分句3是以现在分词形式表示伴随状态

  分句4是分句3的定语从句。

  30、Legend has it that sometime toward the end of the Civil War(1861--1865)a government train carrying oxen traveling through the northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm and had to be abandoned.

  (特殊结构Legend has it that…=There is a legend that…)

  【译句】传说在内战(1861--1865)快结束的某个时候,一列载着牛群的政府的火车在穿过怀俄明州东部的北部平原时遇到了暴风雪,因此不得不被遗弃。

  分句1:Legend has it that

  分句2:sometime toward the end of the Civil War(1861--1865)a government train carrying oxen traveling through the northern plains of eastern Wyoming was caught in a snowstorm

  分句3:and had to be abandoned

  分句1是整个长句子的形式主句

  分句2是分句1的具体解释,也是真正的主句。这里出现了几个分词形式,如“carrying oxen” “traveling through……”等,完全可以换成“that/which carries……”,这里都是现在分词做后置定语,起修饰限定作用。

  分句3是2的并列。

  31、It is a lifelong process,a process that starts long before the start of school and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life.

  (并列同位语a process that…,and one that…)

  【译句】教育是一个终生的过程,早在人们上学之前就开始了。它应成为人的一生中不可缺少的一部分。

  分句1:It is a lifelong process,

  分句2:a process that starts long before the start of school;

  分句3:and one that should be an integral part of one's entire life。

  分句1是整个长句子的形式主句

  分句2是分句1的同位语,是对1的进一步解释说明

  分句3是2的并列句,同为对1的解释说明

  32、Life's transition from the sea to the land was perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge as was the genesis of life.

  (特殊结构as much…as;倒装as was the genesis of life)

  【译句】生命从海洋到陆地的过渡可能是一个像生命起源那样的进化挑战。

  分句1:Life's transition from the sea to the land was perhaps as much of an evolutionary challenge

  分句2:as was the genesis of life

  分句1是整个长句子的主句,虽然这一部分很长,但主谓宾只有一套,而且顺序是正常的分句2是倒装句,按正当语序相当于“the genesis of life was as……(省略)”

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