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2012年11月2日托福阅读试题解析

2018-04-27 14:21 小马过河 山慧倢

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摘要:小马过河网整理2012年11月2日托福阅读试题解析,希望能为大家提供帮助。

 

  第一篇:日本7、8世纪建筑

 

  【摘要】日本建筑风格的改变, 日本建筑的发展和风格与政治和社会经济生活的变迁相关。

 

  考生一回忆:

 

  【回忆原文】7、8世纪之前,日本皇家喜欢move and replace因为喜欢搬来搬去和木头建材腐

 

  烂什么的。后来继承中国的方式,就有了主要宫殿和平常休闲的summer palace。 第一段,概述,讲日本建筑风格改变和政体及农业改变是相关的。 第二段,介绍日本的旧建筑风格是使用很多容易腐蚀的材料,日本人喜欢拆了盖,盖了拆,但是也算不上浪费,因为房子需要修葺,坏了的组件拿去扔掉,烧掉, 好的组件继续用。第三段,就是说日本政治结合比较多,所以一大家子人住在palace里,这里有题,是缩写题。 第四段,随着日本发展,他们需要稳定居所,然后发现china什么的有个首都, 有房子可以随便住,这个好,他们也要这么干。

 

  考生二回忆:

 

  【回忆原文】日本建筑的改变。 7,8世纪之前日本建筑常用木头等易腐蚀的材料,因此1-2年就需要换材料。换材料的过程常常是一个宗教仪式。由于日本传统,日本统治者常常和他们配偶的家人住在一起(考点)。到7-8世纪时候,由于统治者喜欢把材料和劳力掌握在自己手里,以及政府机关的扩大,传统的易腐蚀的建筑变得昂贵了。这时候中国先进的建筑传到日本,有几点原因(考点)。并且中国建筑体系和日本体系相融合,成为一个复合的体系(考点)

 

  【机经解析】 考生主要回忆了日本早期建筑材料的使用和日本宫廷建筑因受中国建筑风格的影响而进行的发展和变迁,并体现了各阶段日本建筑发展所带来的社会益处。 【关键词搜索】(含中英文):日本古代/早期建筑,日本古代建筑材料,日本建筑受中国影响,日本宫廷建筑、日本建筑历史。

 

  材料一

 

  Clustered around the main hall (the Daibutsuden) on a gently sloping hillside are a number of secondary halls: the Hokke-dō (Lotus Sutra Hall), the Kōfuku[3] and the storehouse, called the Shōsō-in. This last structure is of great importance as an art-historical cache, because in it are stored the utensils that were used in the temple's dedication ceremony in 752, as well as government documents and many secular objects owned by the Imperial family.[9]

 

  【9】Itoh (1973), P21. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_architecture#cite_note-Bussagli_168-12

 

  材料二

 

  The Heijo Capital and Palace

 

  As we have already seen, Heijo was designed on a Chinese style grid plan(see fig.19). Basically a rectangle, the capital measured 4.7 km north to south, and 4.2 km east to west with additional sections extending beyond the rectangle to the northwest and east. At its height it is thought to have had a population of about two hundred thousand, including the immediate environs。

 

  以下来源无法从网络上复制黏贴:

 

  Kazuo Nishi, Kazu Hozumi, What is Japanese Architecture? A survey of Traditional Japanese Architecture,

 

  材料三

 

  隋唐是中国古代繁荣、强盛的历史时期之一,政治、经济、军事、文艺、科技在当时世界上都居前列,和四邻的交往也很频繁。对西面的中亚、南亚、中东诸国以商贸关系为主,使远方珍物的商品大量互相交流,以满足双方的猎奇爱好。在器物类型、装饰纹样乃至音乐、舞蹈诸方面,均对隋唐有某些影响,但在建筑方面,却基本上没有表现出来。对东面的朝鲜半岛和日本则有着广泛的政治、经济、文化交流,对其建筑发展有巨大而深远的影响。

 

  Resource: 百度百科:http://baike.baidu.com/view/4234203.htm

 

  第二篇:美国大堤的拆建

 

  【摘要】大坝的修建和拆除对于三文鱼等鱼类的影响,以及经济效益和环境保护的利益权衡。

 

  考生一回忆:

 

  【回忆原文】首先说的是原来修建了很多大堤,现在不再建造新的,相反,要拆掉一些旧的,因为环境原因,恢复湿地,拯救三文鱼什么的。然后讲了几个拆大堤的例子。

 

  第二段是说大坝的, 以前认为建大坝好,能发电各种好,现在风向转了,大家觉得建大坝对生态环境有影响。这里好像问了个问题,为啥政府不建大坝了,答案应该是public反对。然后说 现在政府不建大项目了,举了一种鱼salmon(三文鱼)做例子,大坝建了以后这种鱼不能在自己的地方spawn(产卵)了, 所以散文鱼濒危了。

 

  下面一段不太记得了,好像又举了一种鱼,说是这种鱼即使把大坝remove了还是濒危,因为这个鱼产卵的地方现在有好多clay ,政府如果想让鱼活过来,还要花钱去清理这个好多clay的地方。

 

  最后一段列了一堆问句, 是经济效益重要 还是环境重要? 是鱼重要还是人重要,

 

  考生二回忆:

 

  【回忆原文】美国大坝建设。起初,美国大坝因为可以提供便宜的电力,工作岗位和其他经济因素(考点)而广泛建设。然而大坝破坏了原有的生态环境,上游被淹没,salmon 回游产卵的路径也被切断。20世纪90年代后期,大坝建设由于不利于环境和生态的原因被迫停止。旧的大坝在renew审批时也会从环境的角度考虑。但是拆除大坝也有技术和经济的困难(考点)。第一个被拆除的大坝是E.W大坝。由于E.W大坝的拆除,环保主义者们有了ambitious(词汇题)的目标。有人预测某大坝拆除后可以还山谷一个美丽的自然环境。

 

  【关键词搜索】(含中英文):美国大坝的拆处、三文鱼保护、三文鱼产卵、美国大坝与三文鱼

 

  材料一

 

  【以下材料与原文重合度高,几乎与考生回忆一致】

 

  Purposes and effects of dams

 

  Many of the dams in the eastern US were built for water diversion, agriculture, factory watermills, and other purposes that are no longer useful. Because of the age of these dams, over time the risk for catastrophic failure increases. In addition, many of these dams block anadromous fish runs, such as Atlantic salmon and American shad, and prevent important sediments from reaching estuaries.

 

  Many dams in the western US were built for agricultural water diversion in the arid country, with hydroelectricpower generation being a very significant side benefit. Among the largest of these water diversion projects is the Columbia Basin Project, which diverts water at the Grand Coulee Dam. The Bureau of Reclamation manages many of these water diversion projects.

 

  Dams in the Pacific Northwest and California block passage for anadromous fish species such as Pacific Salmon and Steelhead. Fish ladders and other passage facilities have been largely ineffective in mitigating the negative effects on salmon populations. Bonneville Power Administration manages electricity on 11 dams on the Columbia River and 4 on the Snake River, which were built by the Army Corps of Engineers.

 

 

  材料二

 

  【考生所指的E.W.大坝,可能指的是美国Edward Dam,以下是解析材料】

 

  1999 - Edwards Dam, Kennebec River, Maine – Built in 1837, the 24 ft (7.3 m) dam blocked access toAtlantic Salmon and American Shad. This was a landmark case in which a U.S. federal agency, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, required the decommissioning and removal of a dam against the operator's wishes.

 

  维基百科http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dam_removal

 

  Edwards Dam Kennebec River,

 

  Maine, USA

 

  Removed July 1999 Sediment changes

 

  (improved spawning

 

  habitat); Improved

 

  fish passage

 

  Dadswell 1996

 

 

  University of Pennsylvania

 

  材料三

 

  Salmon Protection and Dam Removal

 

  Salmon have a very important life cycle. They return to the same gravel bed

 

  where they were hatched to lay their eggs and then die, providing the surrounding environment with nutrients that they would otherwise not have. A recent study documented 137 species that benefit from and utilize the ocean-origin nutrients that salmon deliver.[11] The creation of many dams along the Snake and Columbia Rivers have blocked Salmon access to some of the most pristine habitats available, preventing them for being able to spawn effectively as they would've done without the dams being in their way. Even though some dams have fish ladders to assist salmon in their journey up the river, many salmon often die on their return to their birthplace. If the dams were to be removed, and the region convert to utilizing alternative energy sources such as wind and wave power, this would allow for wild salmon to return to pristine habitats in which they could lay eggs that would more likely hatch and grow into substantial wild salmon and also provide nutrients to the already pristine habitat that will make it an even better salmon breeding area. In 2000, the Oregon Chapter of the American Fisheries Society—representing hundreds of fishery professionals—passed a resolution that "The four lower Snake River dams are a significant threat to the continued existence of remaining Snake River salmon and steelhead stocks; and if society wishes to restore these salmonids to sustainable, fishable levels, a significant portion of the lower Snake River must be returned to a free-flowing condition by breaching the four lower Snake River dams, and this action must happen soon".[12] It is vital to salmon conservation that the remaining wild salmon be able to spawn in safe, quality habitats so that the populations of salmon can rise again.

 

 

  材料四

 

  Dam Removal and Fish passage

 

  Dams fragment the corridor of the river in several ways: they isolate populations and habitats, create physical and thermal obstructions for migrating and drifting stream organisms, and disrupt interactions between freshwater, terrestrial, and coastal systems (Winston and others 1991, Chisholm and Aadland 1994, Dynesius and Nilsson 1994, Stanford and others 1996). For instance, blocked migration of diadromous fish has been an issue for numerous dammed rivers. Many migratory fish are not euryhaline (i.e., they do not have mecha- 808 A. T. Bednareknisms to adapt their physiology to different salinities required for movement between fresh and saltwater) (McDowall 1992). The delays in migration time from encountering dams cause energy needed for migration or reproduction to be expended while fish are pooling above or below the dam. For example, the American shad reabsorbs its gonads when returning to the ocean if it is delayed, without releasing eggs or sperm (Dadswell 1996). In addition, predation often increases in pooling areas, where many fish accumulate waiting to pass the dam through fish ladders.

 

  Dam removal may eliminate several problems associated with fish passage for migration or movement within the river channel. First, where a dam has no fish passage structures, removal eliminates mortality due to the inability to pass around the dam and allows organisms to inhabit previously impounded areas. For example, removal of small dams (in Denmark) has resulted in salmonids and other fish being able to reach optimum spawning grounds, enhancing their chances of survival (Iversen and others 1993). Second, where a dam has some form of fish passage, dam removal eliminates death or injuries to riverine organisms caused by passage mechanisms, such as turbine entrainment and fish ladder mortality (Travnicheck and others 1993, Dadswell 1996). Third, where a dam has some form of fish passage, dam removal eliminates delays such as waits at crowded upstream passage devices and downstream delays from swimming through the slow-moving reservoir. Since fish passage structures can not usually accommodate large numbers of fish at the same time, removal will speed fish movement and increase the odds of successful reproduction (Winter 1990, Drinkwater and Frank 1994, Wik 1995). Analyses of fish passage versus dam removal for the Enloe Dam on the Similameen River in Oregon, for example, suggested that added fish passage would not successfully accommodate the large number of migrating fish attempting to pass (Winter 1990).

 

  Removal might also impact organisms that have never been observed using up- or downstream fish passages or that are too large or small for it (Dadswell 1996). For example, there are no records of smelt or Atlantic sturgeon utilizing fish passages on the North American East Coast (Dadswell 1996). Small fish, such as rainbow smelt, might not be able to maneuver through a passage designed to enhance salmon migration, a much larger and stronger swimmer (Dadswell 1996).

 

  The success of efforts to restore river continuity also depends significantly on the extent of the regulation throughout the river. If only one dam is removed on a river that has several, the continued presence of upstream or downstream obstructions limits the extent of the restoration process (Tyus and Winter 1992). One of the first recorded dam removals, the Washington Water Power Dam on the Clearwater River in Idaho in 1963, has improved habitat quality and fish runs of Chinook salmon (Shuman 1995). However, the fish runs are not completely restored because of additional dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers through which the fish must maneuver (Shuman 1995).

 

  

  ANGELA T. BEDNAREK

 

  Department of Biology

 

  University of Pennsylvania

 

  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6018, USA

 

  The Patrick Center for Environmental Research

 

  The Academy of Natural Sciences

 

  1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway

 

  Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103

 

  第三篇:月球上是否有水

 

  【摘要】科学家研究月球上是否有水的各种方法和阐述月球上有水的好处。

 

  考生回忆

 

  【回忆原文】第一段说是科学家分析了月球某些成分,发现没有有机物,而且月球上也没有化石, 然后牵涉到月球上有没有水的问题。后面各种发现,什么水可能在两极啊,水可能在老火山口crater底部啊,还有探测到氢气,这是水的成分,所以可能有水啊 什么的。然后说科学家为了证明有水,想把个快要过期的卫星撞到月球上做实验,因为会有蒸发出来的水,搞不好能探测到 什么的。然后说有水好呀,星际旅行带水很贵(多少多少钱,有题),要是能直接用,那就各种省钱啊什么的

 

  【关键词搜索】(含中英文):月球上的水

 

  材料一

 

  Lunar water

 

  is water that is present on the Moon. Liquid water cannot persist at the Moon's surface, and water vapour is quickly decomposed by sunlight and lost to outer space. However, scientists have since the 1960s conjectured that water ice could survive in cold, permanently shadowed craters at the Moon's poles.

 

  Water, and the chemically related hydroxyl group ( • OH), can also exist in forms chemically bound to lunar minerals (rather than as free water), and evidence strongly suggests that this is indeed the case in low concentrations over much of the Moon's surface.[1] In fact, adsorbed water is calculated to exist at trace concentrations of 10 to 1000 parts per million.[2]

 

  Inconclusive evidence of free water ice at the lunar poles was accumulated from a variety of observations suggesting the presence of bound hydrogen. In September 2009, India's Chandrayaan-1 detected water on the Moon [3][4] andhydroxyl absorption lines in reflected sunlight. In November 2009, NASA reported that its LCROSS space probe had detected a significant amount of hydroxyl group in the material thrown up from a south polar crater by an impactor;[5] this may be attributed to water-bearing materials[6] – what appears to be "near pure crystalline water-ice".[7] In March 2010, it was reported that the Mini-RF on board the India's Chandrayaan-1 had discovered more than 40 permanently darkened craters near the Moon's north pole which are hypothesized to contain an estimated 600 million metric tonnes(1.3 trillion pounds) of water-ice.[7][8]

 

  Water may have been delivered to the Moon over geological timescales by the regular bombardment of water-bearingcomets, asteroids and meteoroids [9] or continuously produced in situ by the hydrogen ions (protons) of the solar wind impacting oxygen-bearing minerals.[10]

 

  The search for the presence of lunar water has attracted considerable attention and motivated several recent lunar missions, largely because of water's usefulness in rendering long-term lunar habitation feasible.

 

  Production

 

  Lunar water has two potential origins: water-bearing comets (and other bodies) striking the Moon, and in situ production. It has been theorized that the latter may occur when hydrogen ions (protons) in the solar wind chemically combine with the oxygen atoms present in the lunar minerals (oxides,silicates etc.) to produce small amounts of water trapped in the minerals' crystal lattices or as hydroxyl groups, potential water precursors.[52](This mineral-bound water, or hydroxylated mineral surface, must not be confused with water ice.)

 

  The hydroxyl surface groups (S–OH) formed by the reaction of protons (H+) with oxygen atoms accessible at oxide surface (S=O) could further be converted in water molecules (H2O) adsorbed onto the oxide mineral's surface. The mass balance of a chemical rearrangement supposed at the oxide surface could be schematically written as follows:

 

  2 S-OH —> S=O + S + H2O

 

  or,

 

  2 S-OH —> S–O–S + H2O

 

  where S represents the oxide surface.

 

  The formation of one water molecule requires the presence of two adjacent hydroxyl groups, or a cascade of successive reactions of one oxygen atom with two protons. This could constitute a limiting factor and decreases the probability of water production if the proton density per surface unit is too low.

 

  Trapping

 

  Solar radiation would normally strip any free water or water ice from the lunar surface, splitting it into its constituent elements, hydrogen andoxygen, which then escape to space. However, because of the only very slight axial tilt of the Moon's spin axis to the ecliptic plane (1.5 °), some deep craters near the poles never receive any sunlight, and are permanently shadowed (see, for example, Shackleton crater, and Whipple crater). The temperature in these regions never rises above about 100 K (about −170 ° Celsius),[53] and any water that eventually ended up in these craters could remain frozen and stable for extremely long periods of time — perhaps billions of years, depending on the stability of the orientation of the Moon's axis.[18][24]

 

  Transport

 

  Although free water cannot persist in illuminated regions of the Moon, any such water produced there by the action of the solar wind on lunar minerals might, through a process of evaporation and condensation, migrate to permanently cold polar areas and accumulate there as ice, perhaps in addition to any ice brought by comet impacts.[16]

 

  The hypothetical mechanism of water transport / trapping (if any) remains unknown: indeed lunar surfaces directly exposed to the solar wind where water production occurs are too hot to allow trapping by water condensation (and solar radiation also continuously decomposes water), while no (or much less) water production is expected in the cold areas not directly exposed to the sun. Given the expected short lifetime of water molecules in illuminated regions, a short transport distance would in principle increase the probability of trapping. In other words, water molecules produced close to a cold, dark polar crater should have the highest probability of surviving and being trapped.

 

  To what extent, and at what spatial scale, direct proton exchange (protolysis) and proton surface diffusion directly occurring at the naked surface of oxyhydroxide minerals exposed to space vacuum (see surface diffusion and self-ionization of water) could also play a role in the mechanism of the water transfer towards the coldest point is presently unknown and remains a conjecture.

 

  维基百科:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_water

 

  材料二

 

  【完整版原文有待进一步查找The full text of this paper to be found】

 

  Water on the Moon

 

 

  Department of Chemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California.

 

  *I presented these suggestions at the International Astronomical Union meetings in Prague, August 1967.

 

  THE possibility that water has existed on the Moon for varying lengths of time, both in liquid arid in solid form, and both beneath the surface and on the surface, has been widely discussed during the past 10 years1–7. The subject has been discussed repeatedly at scientific meetings and has been received mostly with great scepticism. Evidence supporting this view has recently become quite overwhelming and, in fact, no communication seems necessary to point out the evidence from the Orbiter 4 and 5 pictures8. Because many people are not aware of this evidence and suggest that the effects are caused by other liquids, that is, lava, dust-gas or possibly even vodka, a brief discussion of the evidence may be in order.

 

  第四篇:pestcide杀虫剂

 

  【摘要】描述生物的、化学的和生物与化学相结合的三种杀虫方式的优劣

 

  考生一回忆

 

  讲了三种杀虫剂:

 

  1. 化学的(不好,有resistance)

 

  2. 生物的(也不好,有其他物种)

 

  3. 综合发挥法~~各种科技都用上~很好

 

  考生二回忆

 

  Pest control. (我憎恨美国的roach and bedbug )

 

  Native pest 一般都好控制,有他的原始天敌。舶来的pest由于缺乏天敌很难控制。Pest control 有多种手段,一种是chemical control, 可以有效杀灭大部分害虫。然而缺点有二。广谱杀虫会把益虫也杀掉。而且pest会产生耐药性。举了一个蚊子的例子。第二种手段是biological control, 引入nonnative 的天敌,也可以控制pest 数量。例子是300EC中国果园就使用了这一方法(EC是神马?)。缺点是非土著天敌由于新环境没天敌破坏当地生态,举例:澳大利亚。

 

  最近有一种新手段,综合了chemical和 biological control. 这个手段需要专业知识的人才。在pest爆发之前先用chemical control, 然后看情况决定用不用biological control

 

  Types of biological pest control

 

  There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.[1]

 

  Importation

 

  Importation (or "classical biological control") involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. This is usually done by government authorities. In many instances the complex of natural enemies associated with a pest may be inadequate, a situation that can occur when a pest is accidentally introduced into a new geographic area, without its associated natural enemies. These introduced pests are referred to as exotic pests and comprise about 40% of the insect pests in the United States.

 

  The process of importation involves determining the origin of the introduced pest and then collecting appropriate natural enemies associated with the pest or closely related species. Selected natural enemies are then passed through a rigorous assessment, testing and quarantine process, to ensure that they will work and that no unwanted organisms (such as hyperparasitoids) are introduced. If these procedures are passed, the selected natural enemies are mass produced and then released. Follow-up studies are conducted to determine if the natural enemy becomes successfully established at the site of release, and to assess the long-term benefit of its presence.

 

  To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which will allow it to keep pace with the spatial and temporal disruption of the habitat. Its control of the pest will also be greatest if it has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population.[2] However an agent with such attributes is likely to be non-host specific, which is not ideal when considering its overall ecological impact, as it may have unintended effects on non-target organisms.

 

  There are many examples of successful importation programs, including:

 

  Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by biological pest control techniques that are still in use today.

 

  材料二

 

  Biological Vs. Chemical Pest Control

 

  By Damien Campbell, eHow Contributor

 

  There are multiple methods avaiable to control pests.

 

  There are a number of chemical and biological options that control pests in various ways. The options available to landowners to manage pests and maintain healthy crops are diverse and both chemical and biological methods have their own advantages and disadvantages.

 

  Chemical Control

 

  • Chemical pesticides are substances that are manufactured in laboratories that, when applied to crops, reduce the vitality of pest populations while leaving crops unharmed. There are many chemicals available to help eradicate common pests in a number of ways. Chemical controls can kill pests that come in contact with the chemical (toxicants), eliminate the reproductive potential of pests (sterilants), disrupt their developmental potential (growth regulators) or influence their behavior (semiochemicals). Most of these chemical controls are fast acting and effective.

 

  Biological Control

 

  • Biological control methods employ the use of living organisms such as predators, parasites and pathogens to control the populations of pests on agricultural crops. Biological control agents can be bred and reared in large numbers and then released into infected crops to reduce the populations of pests (augmentation) or simple land conservation measures can be implemented on agricultural lands that maintain healthy populations of native predators (conservation). Many pests that cause damages to crops thrive because they are invasive and have no natural predators. Finding and importing predators of these invasive pests is essential for effective biological pest control.

 

  Benefits

 

  • Chemical controls are cheap and readily available. Chemical controls, especially toxicants, have been in use since the 1940's and have remained in popular use due to their fast acting and effective results in controlling pest populations. Many new chemicals have been developed in recent years that are even more efficient in controlling pests, maintaining the popularity of chemical control in agricultural practices. However, biological control has seen an increase in use in recent years due to its perennial and organic nature. Many biological control methods remain in effect year after year, limiting pests without any additional costs or synthetic additives to the natural environment.

 

  Considerations

 

  • While chemical controls are often effective they are usually seasonal and require reapplication with each growing season. Biological controls may take a longer period of time to see the desired results, but they only require the initial investment and introduction to control pests. Chemical controls also have additional environmental costs. Many chemical pesticides are persistent in the environment, damage organisms other than the pests they are meant to control (including humans) and are not permanently effective, as pest populations can build up a resistance to chemicals over time. Thus, while chemical controls may be more economical and effective in the short term, their use requires caution and consideration for future costs, both environmental and economic.

 

  Integration

 

  • While some landowners look only at seasonal profits and depend on chemical methods, others contemplate only the environmental sustainability of their practices and opt for biological methods. However, many landowners blend chemical and biological controls together in order to maximize profits while minimizing costs as well as reduce the environmental impact on their land. The use of multiple pest control methods is referred to as integrated pest management (IPM). Dense infestations often require the potency of chemical pest control but limited application, coupled with preventative biological control, is the most effective agricultural management practice.

 

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