您的位置:小马过河 > 托福频道页 > 托福机经 > 2018.11.24托福机经独立写作小范围预测
400-920-8185

2018.11.24托福机经独立写作小范围预测

2018-11-22 14:43 小马过河 admin

分享到:0

摘要:预测独立写作1 Athletes and entertainers can be good politicians. 高分思路 l they have no ability to take this job l their identities of athletes and entertainers l the popularity of athletes and entertainers will cause the social disruption 高分范文 People who work in politics are always essential to a country. Making important decisions on policies and negotiating with other countries, they do the work relate to our daily life tigh

  预测独立写作1

  Athletes and entertainers can be good politicians.

  高分思路

  l they have no ability to take this job

  l their identities of athletes and entertainers

  l the popularity of athletes and entertainers will cause the social disruption

  高分范文

  People who work in politics are always essential to a country. Making important decisions on policies and negotiating with other countries, they do the work relate to our daily life tightly. However, if we give this task to athletes or entertainers, there will be a lot of troubles.

  Firstly, they have no ability to take this job. To be successful, athletes or entertainers usually begin to learn their major when they are very young. So, they only know knowledge about sports or entertainment, such as exercising, acting and singing, but little about political science. Without the professional knowledge of politics, they do not have the foresight to predict how the nation would become. Also, they are also incapable of negotiating with foreign countries’ diplomats, which will damage our country’s interests. Thus, it is unwise to let athletes and entertainers work in politics.

  Also, because of their identities of athletes and entertainers, they are not serious enough to get a job in policies. For example, some politicians take the responsibility to declare the strict and essential policies. However, in citizens’ mind, athletes are always appeared in television and having sports competitions with others and entertainers, like actors or singers, often show their performance to entertain audiences. They often represent the happiness and leisure, which is not appropriate for the political occasion at all. Thus, it will make the public not take the policies seriously, which may lead a disorder the society.

  Besides, the popularity of athletes and entertainers will cause the social disruption. Most of them have a lot of followers and fans, who support them all the time. Thus, some fans may stand with their idols blindly even when they make incorrect decisions. What’s more, the public opinion, like the comments from Weibo, is always controlled by the fans and it will offend the right opinions professional politicians. Supporting their idols every time, fans are easily to be misled and may cause the terrible consequences, like promulgating unreasonable policies or breaking the good relationship with foreign countries.

  In conclusion, it is incorrect to let athletes and entertainers to pursue a career in politics. People who have worked in this area for a long time are much more suitable than them and can make our country better.

 

  预测独立写作2

  In the modern world, we should never be impolite to another person.

  高分思路

  l being polite to the opponents is the same as being cruel to ourselves.

  l we should not never be impolite to our members when we are leaders of teams

  l it is worry for us to be polite to people who do not respect us

  高分范文

  Politeness is one of the most important characteristics of a nice person. However, being polite to everyone all the time is incorrect. In some special situations, politeness will only show our cowardice or bring us troubles. Here are some examples.

  First of all, when we compete with others, being polite to the opponents is the same as being cruel to ourselves. Take the running race for instance, if we want to show our modesty to other players and not do our best to fight for the champion, we must be regretted to fail in the competition. Also, our friends, teachers and family members, who have great expectation on us, will be disappointed on us. Besides in sports, when we match with people in other areas, like study, career and interpersonal relationship, we always need to divide them from politeness. It is appropriate for us to do all we can for success.

  Moreover, we should not never be impolite to our members when we are leaders of teams. To be a qualified leader, we should guide, organize and convince the members and make the final decision. Whereas, being too polite will lose your authority and make other members unwilling to follow you. For example, when your team is going to decide the gathering time, you need to ask for

  everyone’s free time, match and find the same time that everyone is free, and finally check whether all the members agree with the time to get together. Otherwise, the whole team will be disorganized and spend a lot of time coordinating it if you cannot lead the team correctly. Thus, as a leader, we should not be polite every time.

  Besides, it is worry for us to be polite to people who do not respect us. Even though sometimes, the identity or status of people is different, everyone is equal in moral. For example, when we work as waiters in the restaurant, serving the consumers is our job. However, if the consumer is so picky that always looks for faults or even degrades our dignity, it is unnecessary for us to be still polite to them. It is not worth to suffer from the consumers’ unreasonable quarrel.

  In conclusion, we should not never show impoliteness to others. We should judge the situation and show the right attitude.

 

  预测独立写作3

  In the past, it was easier to identify what type of career or job would lead to a secure and successful future.

  高分思路

  l in the past, there are fewer kinds of jobs than is now

  l with the highly developed Internet system, people are easy to get cheated on the Internet.

  l the requirements for being successful have been changed.

  高分范文

  In the past, it was easier to identify what type of career or job would lead to a secure and successful future.

  In a modern world where everything is changing in such a rapid pace, people, especially young people who have just stepped into the society, often find themselves confused about which job to take in order to succeed. Therefore, I agree that in the past, it was easier to find a secure and promised job.

  To begin with, in the past, there are fewer kinds of jobs than is now. Without the fast development of technology, there wasn’t so many new fields that people can work in. People in the past never thought of being a professional eSports player, but now it has become an excellent job; people in the past never thought of making a living by giving live shows through the Internet, but now it has become one of the top popular jobs; people in the past never thought of making money by opening online shops, but now thousands of people do so and earn great profit. All these possible choices provide people nowadays with more uncertainties, because there can be great difference among people doing the same job. Compared with the several newly emerged jobs, occupations in the past were more stable and had a fixed road to success.

  In addition, with the highly developed Internet system, people are easy to get cheated on the Internet. With no limitations on the Internet, the information usually contains high perplexity. People are talking about different ideas from their different experiences and they can form all kinds of conclusions. By comparison, people in the past mostly had a common opinion on certain jobs, which are reliable for most of the time. Moreover, the invention of different kinds of communication devices made it easier to cheat others. Fraud can easily make money by making phone calls to persuade people to get into certain fields by ensuring them with a great future. And the anonymity of the Internet even provide more conveniences for cheaters to fool others. In this way, in the invention of Internet made it more difficult to be certain about the prospect of a certain career.

  Furthermore, the requirements for being successful have been changed. In the past, people pay more attention on the proficiency of a person in his field, while today, people more focus on the innovation and creation ability of a person. People no longer have to train for hours and days to be skillful in order to success. With innovative ideas, any one can success. The now world pay less attention on the background and educational degree one has , but focus more on their innovation abilities and actual knowledge. Therefore, in the past, with certain and clear criteria, rather than the a fuzzy requirement in modern times, people are easier to find a definite road to success.

  In conclusion, considering about the affect brought by the development of technologies and the different backgrounds of distinct eras, people in the past are easier to find out a secure and successful future.

 

  预测独立写作4

  In times of an economic crisis, in which area should the government reduce its spending?

  1. Education

  2. Health Care

  3. Support for the unemployed.

  高分思路

  l education demands higher expenditures than other two areas.

  l since it is the time of economic crisis, the temporary shortage of educational supporting reduced by the government will not cause serious consequences.

  l as for schools, their financial burdens are lighter.

  高分范文

  When our society confronts the fallout of the global financial and economic crisis, without doubt, the government should take effective measures to live through the economic crisis, for example, reducing the big spending. As far as I am concerned, if the government is going to cut the spending, they should no longer support for the education.

  First of all, education demands higher expenditures than other two areas. To illustrate, the number of students who receive education far outweighs that of the unemployed and patients. Accordingly, more kindergartens, primary schools and universities ought to be set up to meet increasing needs. In addition, the techniques and methods of teaching are complex, thus, the teaching team needs to be strong and to have more diversified teaching tools and advanced facilities. All these spending grow unchecked, and are too much to an ailing government.

  Secondly, since it is the time of economic crisis, the temporary shortage of educational supporting reduced by the government will not cause serious consequences. And the government can utilize the capital reduced from the investment in education to boost the local economy in considerable ways. Moreover, if people are incapable of meeting their basic life demands, perfect education is not fascinating. In addition, thanks to the computerization, access educational resources are available through various ways, like the broad network of computers and the Internet. Numerous high-tech devices are easy to operate and thus enable people to learn courses by themselves. Thus, it is reasonable for the government to reduce the investment in education during the economic crisis.

  Lastly, as for schools, their financial burdens are lighter. Due to their potential profits, many schools’ programs and teaching projects are also attracting sponsorship from enterprises and other organizations. The prestigious “Hope Project” initiated by China is just one example. So far this project has attracted more than 150 companies to build new schools and libraries. I think in the time of an economic crisis, it is the inescapable responsibility of the companies to raise funds and offer financial assistance. For that reason, the government can cut the money on education to support other areas.

  Therefore, in spite of the fact that education is an indispensable part of the entire society, it should be considered individually by the government regarding financial support during the economic crisis. It is easy to conclude that during that time the government should no longer support for the education.

 

  预测独立写作5

  Nowadays it is easier to maintain good health than in the past.

  高分思路

  maintaining health has been made easier in many ways thanks to technologies

  a good health has become more attainable because it is no longer restricted to the wealthy people of society

  governments have a greater involvement in promoting health care

  高分范文

  Medical expenses in many countries can be quite expensive nowadays, and this may lead some people to believe that health care is becoming less obtainable than before. This is untrue, however. If we look at the bigger picture, it is actually easier for most people to get a good health in today's society compared to in the past.

  To begin with, maintaining health has been made easier in many ways thanks to technologies. One big change is how delivery systems have made it possible for people to access fresh food. Whereas before people needed livestock to transport the food, now they can use cars and airplanes to convey the viands. Technologies have brought lots of smaller changes too. Refrigerators enable us to restore food for a long time. Ovens make it possible for us to eat cooked food. Disinfector can help us kill the micro-organisms.

  Additionally, a good health has become more attainable because it is no longer restricted to the wealthy people of society. While in the past only the rich could afford fees for health care, today good hospitals are affordable enough for most people to go to. And since health problems have become a higher priority in today's society, private doctors are also more common and no longer reserved only for high-class families. As long as they have determination, anyone today can receive detailed health care, go to famous hospitals, and receive health insurance. If they cannot afford medical bills, emergent patient can obtain a grant.

  Finally, in most countries today, governments have a greater involvement in promoting health care. In China, for example, health examinations are free for youths and elders. The government has even created programs to send doctors to less developed areas in order to ensure that everyone receives this minimum level of health care. Some diseases remain existent despite this, but on the whole, terminal diseases have become less widespread. China has also implemented government- sponsored programs which send doctors abroad to get promote the skills training. In contrast to before, when governments only really concerned themselves with the health care of elites, nowadays governments are very involved in the health care of ordinary citizens.

 

  预测独立写作6

  Most business people are only motivated by the desire of money.

  高分思路

  l the inflation and other factors, the price of the commodities increases vertically

  l people not only need to buy the living goods, but also cars and houses, which prove their living abilities and even family financial situations.

  l people who have one or more babies need a lot of money

  高分范文

  “It is uncertain whether you are happy or not if you have enough money. However, you must be not happy if you do not have enough money.” Without money, it is hard for us to survive in such cruel society. Thus, a lot of people have to find work or start business to make money, which is their only motivation and desire.

  Because of the inflation and other factors, the price of the commodities increases vertically. Take the food for instance, in the past, a lunch only costed about five yuan. However, nowadays, it is common to spend twenty yuan on it. Besides food, living goods, water and electricity cost and transportation cost all increase the burden and pressure on citizens, especially the youth. Thus, they had to find jobs and make money to afford the basic cost of living and improve the living quality as more as possible.

  Furthermore, people not only need to buy the living goods, but also cars and houses, which prove their living abilities and even family financial situations. As we all know, when a man is going to marry a woman, it is necessary for him to own a car and a house. Or the woman will suspect the man’s ability and worry about the future life. However, the car and the house do cost a lot of money, which is incredible for a youth. In this way, people need to work harder for more wages.

  Also, people who have one or more babies need a lot of money. It is well-known that baby products, like clothes, milk powder and preschool education, are always very expensive because of the requirement of high quality. And parents always want their babies to use the best products. After babies grow up, the cost of education is a large expense, including cost of books, cram school and interest classes. Moreover, an increasing number of parents plan to send their children abroad to widen the horizon and receive higher-level education, which is a huge cost and is stressful for most common families. So, parents are motivated in business by their desire for money to give their children better growth environment and education.

  To improve their life, citizens have to work for money. In closing, money is essential to everyone and thus, most people are motivated by it to work harder in business.

 

  预测独立写作7

  In your opinion, what is the most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life?

  高分思路

  l Thinking critically can make one analyze problems insightfully.

  l one can concentrate on right targets

  l one can make decisions wise and prudent

  高分范文

  To be successful in life, one needs the ability to think critically. By critical thinking, one is capable of analyzing insightfully, concentrating on the right target, thereby making a wise decision.

  Thinking critically can make one analyze problems insightfully. We live in a world where controversial issues are often simply taken for granted. For example, most people are reluctant to think carefully about issues like whether boys and girls should take separate classes. Recently a high school in Beijing announced that their students from then on take separate classes. Many parents support such ridiculous decision without careful consideration. They are poor thinkers. Critical thinking is but to ask some simple yet essential questions, which always brings amazing outcomes. Is such a scheme capable of eliminating underage sexual behaviors among adolescents? Does such a scheme guarantee boys and girls against negative effects? The question left unanswered, but the decision had been made.

  Thinking critically can help one concentrate on right targets. We all have only and exactly 24 hours a day, but we often have mountainous work to do in hands, along with which many personal affairs seem equally urgent. Concentrating on right targets is probably the only way to overcome such dilemmas. For example, ETS has recently announced that GRE examination will be transformed back to paper based test. Grumbles are all around, and complains are posted almost every BBS on the internet. But if students think critically, however, they will find out the simple fact that even if ETS had made an awkward decision, they should concentrate on the right target – preparing test as prudently as possible, and at the same time, grumbling never helps.

  Only by thinking critically can one make decisions wise and prudent. Sound decision making is essential to success. Decisions such as which movie theater we should go tonight are simple enough to make by tossing a coin, but decisions such as which university or which major we should choose are complicated enough so that we need careful comparisons. A comparison sheet will help a lot, simply by listing several relevant questions such as Am I really interested in this major?, or Are there more opportunities in the city where the university locates? By analyzing insightfully and concentrating on the right targets, wise decisions are not hard to reach at all.

  Therefore, among various characteristics that may contribute to one's success in life, being capable of thinking critically is probably the most important.

 

  预测独立写作8

  Observing or studying animals can teach us a lot of human nature.

  高分思路

  l human is overall physically different from animals, which has been proved by lots of scientific discoveries.

  l animals are also psychologically different from human.

  l human nature is constantly changing in an accelerating speed

  高分范文

  From the early centuries, people have been trying to study through animal behaviors. From the past totem worship to later pet keeping, people all always trying to learn about human from the animals. However, I disagree with the statement that observing animals can help people better learning about human nature.

  To start with, human is overall physically different from animals, which has been proved by lots of scientific discoveries. Being the leading species on earth, human are proved to be better evolved compared to animals. With more delicate organs, more sophisticated brain and much more neuron cells, human are far more complicated. Most animal behaviors are out of instinct, such as dog stretching the tongue, which are mostly only physiological processes and are comparatively simpler to human nature.

  In addition, animals are also psychologically different from human. Human have built laws, societies and countries that discourage physical conflict, while animals are still fond of fighting to divide their territory and follow the basic law of evolution. From this perspective, human is mentally more complicated. Animals eat whenever they feel hungry without paying any considerations to shape keeping; animals learn skills in order to survive but paying no attention to studying conceptual knowledge; animals propagate without any ideas about love or marriage. In other words, human’s behaviors are far more complex than the animals’ actions for the basic living. Therefore, learning about animals will only bring one more about original impulse for survival but not about human nature.

  Furthermore, human nature is constantly changing in an accelerating speed. With the rapid development of technology as if taking a rocket, human nature and behaviors are also affected by the changing environment. As human nature is altering in such a speed, animals developing are definitely out of place and do no help for the study of human nature. Millions of years ago, animals as well as people fight fiercely with each other for the survival, but now, animals are still doing the primitive action of fighting with arms and claws, but people have already had laws, societies and other actions to prevent this kind of fighting and enter a highly-peaceful era. This indicates that the difference between human nature and animals’ is enlarged day by day.

  预测独立写作9

  Parents should allow children to make mistakes and let them learn from their mistakes.

  高分思路

  l when children make mistakes, there are potential risks. Without knowing the consequences of mistakes, children are incapable of protecting themselves.

  l it is difficult for children to realize their mistakes and take responsibility for them.

  l we cannot make sure whether children can correct their mistakes after indulging in bad things.

  高分范文

  When I was very young, my parents always told me to learn something from my mistakes. It is inevitable for adults to make mistakes, let alone little children. However, learning from mistakes is not always an advisable way for children to grow up.

  Firstly, when children make mistakes, there are potential risks. Without knowing the consequences of mistakes, children are incapable of protecting themselves. Take crossing the road for instance, not knowing the traffic rules, children are easy to be hurt by passing cars if they go through the red light or jaywalk recklessly, instead of using crosswalks or underpasses. What’s more, they may become disable or even lose lives. It is not worth at all for children to learn something from this kind of mistakes because of the lack of safety.

  Besides, we cannot make sure whether children can correct their mistakes after indulging in bad things. Using smartphones or laptops all the time, young children are easy to be addicted to video-games or online chatting. Also, smoking and drinking are serious problems of young children today. Once they touch with these actions, it is hard for them to realize the mistakes, extricate themselves and correct the behavior. More seriously, these behaviors will become children’s habits if parents do not find them immediately, which will lead tragic consequences. However, the better way to avoid these results is preventing children from touching the bad behaviors and telling them the harm earlier than they wallow in wrong things.

  What’s more, it is difficult for children to realize their mistakes and take responsibility for them. For example, parents need spend a large amount of time educating their children to correct their wrong action of school violence. Be different from the mistakes on study, children are unable to correct it until they understand the basic principle of personal conduct and the theory of equality. Also, it is impossible to cure the children who are hurt by violence in both mental and physical. Thus, the cost of making mistakes is so great that we cannot afford it.

  In conclusion, it is not wise for parents to allow their children to learn from mistakes. Learning the correct things before making mistakes is a better way for young children.

 

  预测独立写作10

  People buy things not because they need but because others have.

  高分思路

  people possess this action because of vanity. It’s in humanity that people usually prefer things that they don’t have.

  while looking at the objects possessed by others, people tend to only focus on the advantages but neglect the disadvantages.

  humans are social animals. People often find themselves eager to being recognized by others in the society.

  高分范文

  In a modern world where people’s living standard have been improved, people have changed their concept of consumption. Civilians tend to buy things not because they need but because others have. This phenomenon comes to be a trend and has affected a large number of people.

  To begin with, people possess this action because of vanity. It’s in humanity that people usually prefer things that they don’t have. This psychological symptom lead to the action of buying things they don’t need. There were even people selling their kidneys to buy the latest published IPhone just because all their peers have one. Recently, many youngsters in China even brought up a trend of loaning on all kinds of platforms in order to fulfill their vanity, from lipsticks to luxuries. Only having income for about 9000 yuan per month, they were able to spend more than 20000 yuan per month for unnecessary shopping. They mostly buy useless stuffs because of their vanity rather than the usefulness of them.

  In addition, while looking at the objects possessed by others, people tend to only focus on the advantages but neglect the disadvantages. When seeing others’ dresses, people often neglect its poor quality but only focus on its beauty; when thinking of cosmetic surgery, people usually ignore its high rate of failure but only craved for the delicate effect it has; when hearing about other’s success in stock markets, people mostly pay no attention to the risk but are only aware of the great profit others own. In this way, people’s selective notice contributes to their eager for things they don’t have.

  Furthermore, humans are social animals. People often find themselves eager to being recognized by others in the society. In this way, people would have the tendency to own things, which were occupied by others to gain recognition among others. Children buy certain sports shoes to gain popularity among other kids; young people consume a great number of money following the trend to buy those “fashionable” dressings to blend into others; businessmen shop for costly watches or suits to show their social status and to win respects. People often maintain relationships with others and try to blend into new social circles by buying things that others have.

  In conclusion, people tended to buy things because of vanity, selective notice and eagerness for recognition. All of these factors contribute to the increasing tendency of buying things others have rather than the things that people really want.

  预测独立写作11

  It has been said, "Not everything that is learned is contained in books." Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?

  高分思路

  l Experiences are the most direct resources we ever have

  l Books are valuable when knowledge is beyond the scope of our experiences

  l Yet either experiences or books may give us wrong information.

  高分范文

  Both experiences and books are very essential resources, and both of them have relevant merits.

  Experiences are the most direct resources we ever have. Almost our every basic skill came from experiences, such as walking, articulating, reading even thinking. Without experiences, some natural born abilities even might lose. Studies have shown that a baby who was robbed by animals into forest for 12 years lost his ability to talk in human language. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that each and every skill develops by experiences, and that's why people always say practice makes perfect.

  Books are valuable when knowledge is beyond the scope of our experiences. Perhaps the most obvious examples are those fluent writers. They write various stories, the scopes of which are far beyond any individual's experiences. Take Joyce Carol Oates for example, her productivity has been prodigious, accumulating in less than two decades to nearly thirty titles, including novels, collections of short stories and verse, plays and literary criticism. Although some of them appear to come from her own direct observations, her dreams, and her fears, much more is clearly from the experiences of others. Her fictive world remains strikingly akin to that real one reflected in the daily newspapers, the television news and talk shows, and the popular magazines of our day.

  Yet either experiences or books may give us wrong information. Our direct observations always are subject to our beliefs, hopes, fears, expectations, and our bias, which might make observations unreliable. People vary in their powers of observation, and the reliability of our observations is no better than the reliability of our memories, which as we know can be deceptive. Information printed in papers sometimes is unreliable either, it may be misprinted, or even deliberately distorted. For example, Definitions such as Marxism, Capitalism, Zionism are totally different in the Oxford Learner's Dictionary of Current English between the original edition and the sanctioned Russian edition.

  In conclusion, both sources are important. Sometimes one is more important than the other in accordance with specific circumstances. For example, when we make a general survey about a certain subject, we may prefer rich references in library. On the other hand, if we want to know more specific details, we had better refer to experiences such as results of carefully designed experiments.

 

  预测独立写作12

  There are so many events happening everyday in the world,

  we don’t have to know.

  高分思路

  l learning about everything that is happening will disturb one from develop in the field that one is really interested in.

  l knowing about something happening in the world has a negative impact on a person.

  l much of the information of the events happening in the world is useless, especially that about popular stars.

  高分范文

  In a modern world that everything is changing in an amazing speed, there is so much in the world happening every day. I agree that in such an unpredictable world, we don’t have to all current affairs.

  To start with, learning about everything that is happening will disturb one from develop in the field that one is really interested in. If one wants to be outstanding in one aspect, no doubt he will have to sacrifice some attention on another. Mozart won’t pay much attention to the physics field; Newton won’t focus on music progress; Shakespeare won’t be interested in the politics. Only when they fall in the part that they devoted their lives can they achieve the success that is so unique. Trying to absorb all the events that are happening in the world can cost too much energy and even bring difficulty to one’s life.

  In addition, knowing about something happening in the world has a negative impact on a person. For instance, news and reports about drugs taking, alcohol addiction and violence may have negative effect on people, especially the kids who don’t have the ability to distinguish right from wrong yet. Learning about these things set terrible example for the children, which may even destroy their lives. Besides, with the prevalence of the Internet, vicious comments can be presented to anyone anonymously without paying any legal liability. This information may leave deep and negative impression on the children, and may even distort their view of the world.

  Furthermore, much of the information of the events happening in the world is useless, especially that about popular stars. Spending hours on viewing the moments in Wechat, Facebook, and Instagram is meaningless. Information on these can simply provide a momentary delight, but when thinking back days later, one may remember nothing to be really important and useful. Compared to spending time for this kind of void joy, one should rather take more effort to improve oneself in internal accomplishment, for example reading books, or cultivating hobbies, which can make one’s life colorful and meaningful as well.

  In conclusion, considering from the energy cost, negative impact and usefulness, I believe that we don’t have to know every single event that is happening in this fast-developing world.

托福超级学习资料包火热领取中!

  资料包包含:

  1.TPO1-54全套资料和模考软件

  2.历年真题解析和最新机经预测

  3.各科目学习资料和视频

  4.OG电子版

  5.TED演讲音频和视频

  6.托福核心词汇PDF

  资料包领取方式



相关字搜索:11.24托福机经,独立写作小范围预测,托福独立写   

Copyright ©2004-2018 www.xiaoma.com All Rights Resserved 小马过河版权所有

课程咨询电话:400-920-8185 邮箱:tech@sanlischool.com

课程咨询请扫描以上二维码

关于我们 网站地图

京ICP备14009560号-3

京公网安备 11010802021370号