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【机经】2019年1月托福考试独立写作预测(上)

2018-12-26 18:52 小马过河 admin

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摘要:1. If you are selecting a leader for a student organization, honesty is the most important to consider in deciding whom to vote for. 解题思路: ① (开头段)In every historical period, it is an outstanding leader who can guide his followers to make smooth progress. Thus, choosing a leader requires prudent consideration, especially for a student organization and many qualities should be taken into account. Some people may consider that the

  1. If you are selecting a leader for a student organization, honesty is the most important to consider in deciding whom to vote for.

  解题思路:

  ① (开头段)In every historical period, it is an outstanding leader who can guide his followers to make smooth progress. Thus, choosing a leader requires prudent consideration, especially for a student organization and many qualities should be taken into account. Some people may consider that the leadership or personal charming is the most important part of a leader. However, if I were to decide the one suitable for this position, honesty would be kept highest on my list of priorities(首要考虑因素).My reasons and examples are given below.

  ② (Body 1) First off, honesty is the basic premise(基本前提) of winning over(赢得) other students. Children are taught to be faithful and trustworthy in terms of getting along with(与…相处)others since they were born. Imagine that if finding their leader is lying about the use of funds, for example, won’t these members doubt the authority of this leader, or even the meaning of being honest? Of course they will. If that’s the case, the leader may lose affection of his/her team members gradually, and the morale of this organization would definitely be dented(dent team morale 削弱士气). Hence, to shore up credibility(建立威信), a leader is supposed to show sincere in front of the whole team, and let the team members know the person leading them does have the ability to get activities well-organized, or to back up them when they need.

  ③ (Body 2)In addition to this, an honest leader will set a good example(做出榜样) for the whole team. As an old saying goes, fish begins to stink at the head(鱼腐头先臭,上梁不正下梁歪). That is, if the leader starts to tell lies for the sake of some certain purposes, you can’t expect how well the whole team perform. For example, in order to avoid punishment, a classmate of mine, also a leader of the street dancing club in my school, lies to his teacher by asserting that they have been rehearsing the show for the New Year’s Eve party (actually most of the rehearsing time has been used to play cards). And few of them takes the show seriously, or take the honor of the team seriously. Regardless of the final performance, this attitude the whole team holds is definitely not what the teacher and the school expect. In contrast, if the leader faced reality frankly and corrected what is wrong in time, things would be totally different.

  ④ (让步)Sure, some may argue that from time to time white lies have to be told and perhaps other qualities, like communication skills, play a more important role in deciding the candidate for the leader. Indeed, you can’t blame the leader for consoling the members with “good job” when they’ve just finished the worst football match, and it is also acceptable that the leader tells everyone “everything’s OK” after being scolded by their teacher. But the thing is, these white lies are not that necessary. Only if the leader is sincere enough, can s/he foster mutual trust, camaraderie, and team morale as well. It may do more good to honestly telling the team that we are not good enough, but we can be better and better. Similarly, it doesn’t matter(…不是关键) whether the leader is expert at(精通) communicating or other specific skills, being honest matters. With a trustworthy leader, every student of this organization could be themselves with ease(放松自在), so even if difficulties appears when communicating, or even conflicts exist, these problems could be put to rest(解决了难题).

  ⑤ (结尾段)For the reasons above, honesty, for me, should be the most essential quality to decide a leader for a student organization, even if opposing opinions exist.

  2. Many filmmakers make movies base on books. some people prefer to read the book before they watch the movie, while other people prefer to watch the movie before they read the book. which one do you prefer?

  解题思路:

  先看书后看电影

  ① 首先,先看书可以培养你的想象力(Reading first can develop your imagination.)因为你可以在看电影的时候去想象那些书中的角色(you can image the characters in the book and when you watch the movie. )

  ② 其次,先看书能都更好地帮助与我们去理解电影(It is better for us to appreciate the movie)。电影中往往会缺少一些细节,然而在书中我们可以看到这些细节(subtle nuances),从而让我们能更好地理解作品的含义。

  ③ 让步段,读书之前先看电影能够很高效地利用我们有限的时间来了解书的内容。因为看电影不会占用我们太多的时间(not take up our leisure time),可以利用较短的时间来回顾我们在书籍中看到的内容(review the contents of the book in the best timely manner),因而加深我们对作品的印象(deepen our impression of the work)。但是,电影对书籍的理解是导演及编剧的主观理解,没有站在客观角度上去理解书籍,会对读者产生误导。

  3. Some young people are free in the evenings or have days off at school, which way can bring them the most benefit?

  A. to accumulate work experience by a part-time job or volunteering in a community

  B. learning to play a sport

  C. learning to play a musical instrument

  解题思路:

  to learn to play a sport

  ① There is no doubt that playing a sport could bring us physical health as well as mental health, which is essential for individual development. (在晚上空闲时间进行体育运动不仅能强健身体还能带来精神健康。) As we all know, playing sports is regarded as the best way to excise our body and release stress to obtain emotional balance. After a hard day's work,our negative emotions accumulated all day would do harm to our health and efficiency in work, which could be released properly in sports.(一天繁重的工作之后,我们会累积许多的负面情绪,而这些负面情绪会对我们的身体健康和工作效率有很大的危害,所以需要通过体育运动来释放。)+具体论证

  ② Another factor which should be taken into account is that, in sports, we could learn to communicate and cooperate with others, which plays an elementary role in individual overall development. (体育运动不仅能释放压力还能培养我们的沟通协作能力。) Virtually, success depends not only on intelligence quotient developed by studying in daytime, but also on emotion quotient that can be improved in sports. (一个人的成功不仅取决于日常学习提升的智商,还取决于情商,而体育运动可以提升个人的情商。)+具体论证

  ③ Admittedly, it is justifiable to reckon that doing a part-time job or playing a musical instrument is also a good way to spend our free time at night. (这一段是让步段,简要表明其他两种选择也有一定的好处,但要把重点放在解释体育运动是最好方式的观点上)。

  4. A/D To remain happy and optimistic when you fail is more important than achieving success. 解题思路:

  ① Modern society places a lot of emphasis on success. Though success is clearly desirable, I think our intense focus on success is unhealthy and counterproductive. People would be better served by learning how to adopt a positive attitude towards failure.

  ② First of all, this would allow them to live more fulfilling lives. Studies have shown that the fulfillment brought by success is very fleeting. While you may feel great for a little while after, your mood will quickly drop back to normal levels. The road to success is paved with setbacks; even if you do eventually achieve your goals, if you are unable to experience the failures positively, you will have actually experienced a net decrease in happiness. It is thus important to remain happy and optimistic through failure, because while failure comes inevitably and often, success does not.

  ③ Second of all, focusing too much on success will hurt your relationships with others, whereas learning to enjoy failure will actually improve your relationships with others. This is particularly true of working in a team. For one class project, I had to work in a team led by someone who only cared about success. We didn’t pursue any unusual ideas, and mistakes were criticized harshly. The team did fairly well, but by the end everybody hated working on the assignment. The leader’s attitude rubbed off on all of us: Nobody wanted to take risks, and setbacks weighed heavy on all of us. This was in contrast to my friend’s group, which had a much more open-minded leader. She encouraged the team to test unconventional ideas, and any time they hit a roadblock, they took it as an opportunity to rethink their approach. After the project was over they all remained friends, and they even received a better grade than us.

  ④This leads me to my final point: enjoying failure and de-emphasizing success will paradoxically make you more apt to succeed. This is because success hinges on consistent progress, and consistent progress can only come from continuously challenging your abilities and risking failure. Michael Jordan once said that his success came from failing over and over—that he had missed thousands of shots on his path to greatness. He was able to get better because he was eager to see where his deficiencies lay and figure out how to address them. This is the common thread we see in all successful people: they are all happy to fail, because failures open up opportunities for improvement.

  ⑤ Most people fail more often than they succeed. Thus, in order to live a fulfilling life, we should learn to approach failure positively. This will not only improve our relationships, but also make success more likely.

  5. High school teachers (teachers of students ages 14-18) spend most of class time lecturing (speaking) while the students listen and take notes. Other high school teachers spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas. Which of these two approaches do you think is more effective for student learning and why?

  解题思路:spend most of class time on discussion and projects that students are highly involved in and exchange their ideas

  有利于培养学生的创造性(cultivate creativity)。因为在小组讨论中,学生只能依靠自己和同学的知识、经验去解决问题,而不是依靠老师给予的建议,可以让孩子提出一些有创造力的解决方案(come up with innovative solutions)。对比论证:然而,如果学生知识一味地听课和记笔记,填压式的教育(force-feed education)会让孩子死记硬背(learn things by rote),扼杀(stifle)她们的想象力和创造力。

  ‚讨论学习的方式可以让孩子更有动力去获取知识(be motivated to acquire knowledge)。因为和同龄人(peers)一起讨论、合作去解决问题会让学生觉得很轻松愉快,同学之间也可以相互鼓励学习,从而提升了同学们学习的士气(lift morale)举例论证

  ƒ让步段 :确实,听老师上课和记笔记能让学生再学习上更专注,也能在短时间内获得准确的知识。但是,长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生失去思考能力,扼杀他们的想象力、创造力;除此之外,长时间的听课和记笔记会让学生感到疲惫,打压学生学习的积极性(sap one’s enthusiasm)

  6.Which one is the most important for high school teachers? (students aged 15 to 18)

  -The ability to give advice about planning for future.

  -The ability to recognize students that need help.

  -The ability to encourage students to learn on their own outside the classroom.

  解题思路:The ability to give advice about planning for future

  ① 首先,具备给学生规划未来建议的能力可以让学生和老师之间的关系更加亲密(intimate)。因为这个年龄阶段的学生处于青春期(adolescence),想法会比较偏激、新奇(radical ideas),如果老师具备了这种能力,就意味着老师需要充分地去了解学生,了解他们的想法和喜好,给出一些适合学生的建议,从而可以加强师生关系。举例论证

  ② 其次,具备给学生规划未来建议的能力可以让老师的思想和行为更加与时俱进(up-to-date ideas)。社会在不停的发展,不同的时期的职业规划也不尽相同,具备给学生做规划未来的这种能力,意味着老师需要了解社会发展的需求,了解更多新的信息,从而让老师的思想和行为保持先进。举例论证

  ③ 让步段:承认其他两个选项的好处+反驳:其他两个选项固然好,但是有缺陷

  7.People should state their honest opinions even though they know others will disagree with their views.

  解题思路:agree

  First of all, we need to tell friends and family members how we really feel and what we really want, so as to avoid misunderstandings and conflicts. If we tell lies to protect others’ feeling's, we may end up with upsetting ourselves and in turn damaging our relationships with friends and family members. 举例论证

  Furthermore, we need to talk frankly with our coworkers and business partners as well, so as to increase our work efficiency, explore full business potential and minimize the chance to make mistakes. Different opinions should be allowed in business meetings and we should speak out loud our opinions regardless others’ doubts and oppositions. 举例论证

  Admittedly, some maintain that team will be involved in argument and unpeaceful atmosphere everyday, which is harmful for our mind. However, if everyone keep silent when someone express an terrible opinion and just compromise it, it will harmful to all team. Others do not know what one is thinking about. Thus, they deem this people agrees with the decision, while actually he/she does not. It will bring some potential problem in the work. In the long run, the increasing number of trouble like this will explode and make a great disaster for the whole team.

  8.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Despite the fact that many countries say they care about environmental problems, the environmental situation will not improve significantly in the future.

  解题思路:disagree

  These days, countries are much more willing to acknowledge environmental issues than they were in the past. Part of the reason is that many environmental problems have reached a point where they can't be easily hidden or ignored anymore. More promisingly, I think countries are also beginning to recognize that alleviating environmental problems is in their best economic interest in the long-term. For those reasons, I'm willing to bet that the environmental situation will gradually improve as we keep moving forward.

  Firstly, countries have been facing mounting pressure to be more environmentally conscious from not only their own citizens, but also other countries as well. With the global village being as connected as it is today, and with citizens being generally more diligent and aware, it is now very difficult to get away with the kind of gross negligence towards the environment that would have been easy to hide twenty or thirty years ago. For example, if factories are dumping chemicals in local rivers and streams, there are now plenty of nongovernmental organizations to catch them. On the international level, there are treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol that seek to reign in the greenhouse gas emissions of various countries.

  Secondly, it is becoming apparent that long-term environmental damage also leads to long-term economic losses. An organization in China, for example, published that in 2008 over one trillion RMB was lost due to land degradation and ecological damage costs—at the time, that was almost 4 percent of China's GDP. Factoring the potential long-term costs of environmental recovery, the costs are even higher. Damage to forests, for instance, does not just mean the short-term deprivation of wood resources—it also means higher rates of soil erosion, long-term loss of biodiversity, and long-term economic losses in the form of reduced wood harvests in the future. The actual costs and figures are now there to back all this up, so countries can start to make informed environmental decisions based on this data.

  Granted, there may be some cause to remain cynical about things showing much improvement—after all, today there are more cars on the road than ever; industries are booming; fossil fuel consumption is at an all-time high; and many developing countries hold the (not entirely unreasonable) attitude that, "You guys had your chance to pollute and grow, why are you now denying us ours?" But against this somewhat pessimistic backdrop, a countervailing wave of hope is beginning to crest: more and more people are adopting alternative forms of transport; green technologies are flourishing; the steady march towards fusion power continues; and environmental issues are more prominent in politics than they have ever been. For these reasons and more, I cannot but see the situation only getting better from here.

  9.People who cannot accept criticism from others will not be successful at working in a group.

  解题思路:Agree

  First of all, not accepting criticism from team members would stop you from improving. Criticism is a common way that people use to point out the mistakes or shortcomings of others, and usually, it is difficult for individuals to find out their own problems. Thus, not modestly listening to others’ opinion and comments would make one always goes in the wrong direction. 举例论证

  Second, existing one member who refuses to take criticisms decreases the working efficiency of the team. Some group tasks or projects need members to unite as a whole and sustain similar goals. However, if one cannot objectively accept criticisms and suggestions, other members have to stop and try to persuade him/her. 举例论证

  Last but not least, always refuting other people's suggestions and comments would let one be isolated from the rest of the group. Those who frequently reject others’ criticisms tend to show an air of complacency, arrogance, even rudeness. Thus, other members in the team must feel uncomfortable to work with such people and will not cooperate with them, even kick them out. 举例论证。

  10. Some people believe going on field trips is better for child’s education, while others think it is better for children to study in the classroom at school. Which one do you prefer, and explain why.

  解题思路:选择going on field trips is better

  ① 课外拓展首先可以很好的激发学生学习的兴趣(motivate the students to learn)。因为学生能看到外面世界的多面性(introduce young kids to new aspects of the outside world),比如关于某些特定的学科,比如艺术,音乐,以及一些古典文化,学生在课外可以看到很多影像,这样的话,学生精神上会更兴奋也更集中(capture the images, mentally exited and thus more concentrated )。举例论证:如果在学校学习一种建筑风格(style of architecture),老师只是展示图片(show images),学生没法身临其境,导致学生失去兴趣(lose interests),同时也没法感受此种建筑风格的真正魅力(real charm),从而减弱了教学效果。

  ② 课外拓展同时对于学生的身心健康也很有帮助(be mentally and physically beneficial to the students.) 。学生不必坐在课桌前疯狂完成所有课程,而在此过程中,不正当的姿势(improper posture)会导致学生的视力下降,以及身形的变形(decline in the eyesight and distortion in the backbone)。此外,一味枯燥的校内课业压力也会让学生,尤其处于青春期有逆反心理的学生(adolescent psychological inversion),产生厌学(tired of learning)的心理问题。适当走出校门,学生的思路则被打开(mind be opened),身体也没有被束缚在一个小小的教室(restricted in a narrow area),而这些都是对发育期的学生们非常好,非常重要的。

  ③ 让步段: 尽管在学校里面学习也是不可缺少的(be indispensable),因为在学校里,可以在老师的指导下系统地学习知识(acquire information and perceive knowledge systematically under the instruction of teachers)。很多学科都是以理论为基础的(based mainly on theories or principles),我们不需要学习任何有关的学术背景(scientific background)就能快速习得知识并应用(rapidly perceive the knowledge and learn to apply),举例论证:比如数学。对学生来说,学习数学的历史背景对于了解公式定理(mathematical rules and formulations) 并没有太大帮助,而这样的课程完全可以在学校高效的完成(manage to learn efficiently in school)。但是,随着年纪和学习阶段的不断提升(the increase of age and level of learning),孩子会学习到越来越多的非理论型的/偏向实际应用型和艺术创作类课程,为了让孩子有更全面的发展(integrated development),走出教室和学校一定是必然的趋势(inevitable trend)。

  11. When people spend a lot of time watching sports on television or following their favorite team. Does this has a negative influence on the lives of people?

  解题思路:Agree:

  ① 自律能力不强的人会因为观看太多体育节目而耽误学习工作。(If people have not strong self-discipline, it is easy to indulge in diverse sport programs.)举例论证:很多青少年会因此忽略学业,将大部分的注意力放在体育节目上(A lot of young people will ignore their studies, and pay more attention to sport programs.)

  ② 容易盲目崇拜某个球员或某支球队,从而产生过激行为。(People tend to worship blindly a player or a team, which results in aggressive behavior.)举例论证:在观看俱乐部比赛中,常常会出现球迷冲突。(In some club matches, fans usually clashed inside and outside the stadium.)

  ③ 看体育节目的时间过长,因此没有时间去锻炼身体。(People spend a lot of time in watching sport programs, therefore they have no enough time to exercise.)举例论证:青少年的近视人数日益增多(The number of myopic juvenile is increasing.)

  12.Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for the government to spend more money on art museums and music performance centers than on recreational facilities(like playgrounds, public swimming pool).

  解题思路:agree

  ① Art museums and music performance centers可以给当地政府带来持续稳定且数目可观的收入(a source of steady and considerable income)。解释:这些场地可以用来举办各类艺术展和明星演唱会, which is attractive to not only local residents but also tourists and fans from other places.

  ② 比起public recreational facilities, art museums and music performance centers能够带来更多的就业岗位(employment positions)。解释:这些场馆需要长期的管理和工作人员(long-term staffs to manage and maintain)。并且,展览和演唱会等活动的不断举办也会促进相关产业的发展(stimulate the development of relevant industries)。

  ③ 让步:诚然,constructing recreational facilities is also beneficial to citizens, 比如,确实public swimming pools and playgrounds provide easy access for citizens to participate in sport activities and to relax with a lower price。但是art museum and music centers benefit both the public and the government。并且,人们在看exhibition 和 music performance的时候不仅也可以得到很好的放松,还能acquire more cultural knowledge, improve their aesthetic appreciation。

  13. Recently some students need to arrive to school at the early time in the morning. Some people think that starting school day early is a good approach to support learning; other people think that starting school day at the later time is a good approach to support learning.

  属于prefer的考题,考生可人选一种观点进行阐述,言之有理即可。笔者仅从starting school day at the later time角度给出一定的思路解析。

  Body 1:提高学习效率(improve the learning efficiency)。

  早上睡眠不足很有可能课上睡觉,拖后上课帮助学生克服睡眠不足的学习状态,提高课堂参与度。(help students overcome the lack of sleep state of learning, improve the classroom participation.)

  Body 2:有助于身心健康(physical and mental health)

  世界卫生组织公布青少年的平均睡眠时间应保持在9小时(Teenagers' average sleep time should be kept in 9 hours)。

  睡眠不足不仅影响学习还影响学生的心理健康(lack of sleep not only affects learning also affect students' mental health)

  此外,拖后上课可以让学生避免rush hour,从而在一定程度上减少车祸的发生。

  Body 3:让步段:尽管让学生starting school day early可能会帮助学生利用早晨的时间来学习,但是,与学习的时间的长短相比,效率以及上课时充沛的精力更有利于(Compared with the length of time of learning, energy and efficiency are more important for)support learning。

  14. Nowadays, children rely too much on the technology, like computers, smart phone, video games, for fun and entertainment. Playing simpler toys or playing outside with friends would be better for the children’s development.

  ① 和朋友们一起参加户外活动可以促进我们的交流能力(communication skills)和人际交往能力(the development of one’s interpersonal skills)

  ② Playing simpler toys or playing outside with friends can enhance children’s critical thinking and logical thinking.

  ③ Not only can children improve their physical health, but also they can advance the mental health by playing outside with friends.

  15. Whether playing sports teaches people important lessons of life or not.

  以正面为例,举出三个方面看法。

  Firstly, playing sports teaches people not to give up. 运动教会我们不放弃。比如,在运动赛事中,最基本的规则(basic rules)就是坚持到底(hold on straight to the end)不到终点,没有人知道谁是赢家(winners)

  Secondly, playing sports teaches people not to look down on others. 运动教会我们不要轻视别人。有经验的运动员(experienced athletes)会因为他们的轻敌(treat others lightly)在大型比赛像奥林匹克(Olympic Games )这样的赛事中遭遇失败(suffer failures),遗憾地与奖牌失之交臂(brush against gold medals regretfully)

  Thirdly, playing sports teaches people to focus on team spirit. 运动教会我们要有团队精神。绝大部分(absolutely most)的体育赛事(sports events)需要完美地配合(cooperation excellently)去赢得比赛。比如,足球比赛中,精确而且完美的传球(accurate and brilliant passes),才能让前锋或者中锋(forward or center )进球得分(get goals)。

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