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新托福听力考试解析——技巧篇

2018-04-04 11:18 三立在线 admin

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摘要:新托福听力考试特点 1)考察内容有重点:语言素材主要集中在艺术,生命科学,自然科学和社会科学这四个方面。但不要求考生有特殊的专业背景知识。话题的难度和在北美校园生活

 

托福听力考试特点
 
1)考察内容有重点:语言素材主要集中在艺术,生命科学,自然科学和社会科学这四个方面。但不要求考生有特殊的专业背景知识。话题的难度和在北美校园生活中所遇到的各种语言环境相当。
2)淡化技巧:新托福听力在很大程度上淡化了做题技巧,更加注重对听力实力的考察。但是并不代表没有技巧可言,在后面的章节中我会具体谈论做题技巧。
3) 答题时间自由支配:新托福的听力部分并未固定每个题目的答题时间,比如旧托福听力部分每道题就严格控制在12秒。也就是说考生可以自由分配答题时间,只要保证在规定的时间内做完所有的题目即可。
4)问题后出现:考生只能在听完1个conversation或1个lecture后,才能看到相应的问题。并且次屏幕只会显示1个问题。因此考生需要靠自己的记忆力和理解能力,还有所做的笔记选择答案。(注意:考场会发草稿纸和2B铅笔,考生无需准备)
 
 
6月9号听力回顾
 
显而易见,听力中的对话部分考察重点是学生面临的问题和工作人员给予解决问题的方法。讲座部分侧重点放在了life science 和physical science的方面。 大家应对如下topic中的terms重点理解,其中部分terms是重复考过的:
 
 
Seismology (plate structure, earthquakes, tectonics, contenental drift, structure of volcanoes) 地震学:板块结构,地震,构造地质学,大陆漂移,火山结构
Other planets’ atmospheres 其他星球的环境
Glaciers, glacial landforms, ice ages 冰川,冰川的地形,冰河世纪
Weather and atmosphere 天气和大气
Animal behavior, e.g, migration, food forageing , defensive behavior 动物行为,如迁徙,觅食, 防御性为等
Habitats and the adaptation of animals and plants to them 动植物的栖息地以及植物对栖息地的适应
Fish and other aquatic organisms 鱼类和其他水生物
 
 
对话1:
人物:学生与工作人员
地点:就业中心(employment service centre)
museum工作的学生去employment service centre拿工作的feedback。
主要矛盾:该同学上班时间和朋友讲话,而且defend himself(辩解)
Counselor/advisor的建议:建议学生要有self-confidence,和work behind the scene。比如说做curator的assistant。而且劝学生去找curator谈谈,即使被curator reject了,也能了解做curator需要什麽ability。
 
对话2:
人物:学生与工作人员
某学生的ID card丢了,钱包以及其他证件也丢掉了。该学生提供了本人的护照号码,工作人员帮助解决了相关问题。 

讲座
Business
关于assumption的strategy。一个是看公司过去的experience, 另一个是看公司的leader。There is a case in point:公司判断自己的client的brand loyalty。当竞争对手降价时,若判断正确(client的brand loyalty高),公司没有降价,那竞争对手将蒙受损失。若判断错误,自己的产品会卖不出去。
 
Astronomy
hooker telescope的意义:
帮助人类看到glaxy以外的地方,并帮助形成了 big bang theory;
然后说到由多个conventional telescope组合起来的工具,每个telescope收集有关light的信息,然后传给computer,由电脑合成为一副image,它的advantage/benefit/pro在于可以看清楚更多的东西。并举例说:有了由多个conventional telescope组合起来的工具,发现原来看上去是一团的stuff,是由6颗星共同运动形成的。
教授强调hooker telescope的重要性。 因为有这座telescope帮助了big bang theory的形成。
教授又转折:由多个conventional telescope组合起来的工具也许在今后可以帮助发现有生命的planets。
 
Biology
 W
 
 
Bird’s homing and migration
有些鸟类会利用landmark作为回家的辅助,比如有种seabird会利用coast line来识别方向。教授还强调说homing和migration有所不同。
 
Life science
教授解释neuron是通过发送电信号一个接着一个传导的。然而忽视了对某种 cell的研究,认为这种cell只是对neuron起支持作用。现在才发现这种cell数量比neuron还多,而且与人的智力发展有密切联系。
 
 
616号听力机经分析-精华(感谢网友提供的信息)

大家好,请大家牢记新托福听力考试的一个原则:工作人员和教授“上帝”
原则。
也就是说学生永远都会听从工作人员的要求,同时也会同意教授的观点和想法。但是注意这个同意的过程势必一波三折。如果没有波折,ETS就没有办法使conversation延长到2-3分钟,使了lecture延长到4-6分钟了。


第一题,
A conversation between a student and a housing director
conversation为分析问题,解决问题。

某学生公寓因为不符合safety regulations, 学生需要move out。一个女生和housing director抱怨说不想搬,因为exam is coming,而且考试不可以extend。管理员说不搬就against the law, renovating the dormitory期间所有学生都需要搬出去。学校负责找房子和找mover搬家, 新住处比较小,所以宿管会开个见面会让学生组合成新室友。

第二题:
A lecture about biogeography
此lecture属于cause and effect结构

一个生物学家,
发现Indonesia的Bali岛和另一个B**岛虽然只隔了35公里,可是动物种类不同. 一条W线, 线左边的Bali岛和亚洲动物种类相同,而线右边的B**岛和澳大利亚的动物种类相同。主要原因由于冰河时期的冰川运动,使Bali岛和亚洲大陆相连,
两个island之间有一条深沟,使得两个island之间的mammal不能相互联系。
pUo5
第三题
A lecture about Native Americans
此lecture属于cause and effect结构

美国的一个印第安部落在几百年前突然离奇消失. 科学家用computer simulating,把初始的demographic variable输入电脑,然后根据环境条件变化作为参数(parameter),推测他们的人口变化。科学家发现模拟结果和历史惊人的相似,但是,此模拟程序显示经过drought,此tribe并未完全消失,以此说明此印第安部落的消失还有其他原因。

第四题,
A conversation between a student and a professor
此conversation为分析问题,解决问题。

老师发现某学生的assignment没有用学校的workbook来。学生说all the workbook have been sold out。老师说每个semester学校会多进一些workbook的,但后来老师想起来今年at the last minute多招了20多个学生,所以不够。但该学生不以为然,老师说会联系publisher解决此问题。

第五题,
A ;lecture about chemistry
此lecture属于compare and contrast结构, 抓住两事物的similarity和difference.

讲的是液态水的沸点不超过100 cent degree。在水壶中由于上层水对下层水产生压力,导致下层水所受的压力超过atmospheric pressure,因此底层水会超过100度。除此以外,水倒进fry pan上时立刻蒸发,后来倒进去的水只冒泡不马上evaporate,因为前面倒进去的水蒸发成vapor,而vapor的heat transmission比water和pan都要差,所以后倒进去的水温度不够,不会马上蒸发。

第六题
A lecture about Law and Rule
此lecture属于compare and contrast结构,抓住两事物的similarity和difference.


教授说到Law和Rule怎样控制人类behavior。一些地方没有Law, 只有Rule, 但也可以控制人类行为,依靠的是public opinion压力,人们害怕受到群体中其他人的排挤,所以会控制自己的行为
 
 
 
Telescope (From Microsoft Company)
Telescope, device that permits distant and faint objects to be viewed as if they were much brighter and closer to the observer. Telescopes are typically used to observe the skies. For hundreds of years, telescopes were the only instruments available for studying the planets and stars. Even today, space probes can reach only our closest neighbors in the heavens, and scientists continue to rely on telescopes to learn about distant stars, nebulas, and galaxies. Telescopes are the fundamental research instruments that enable astronomers to tackle scientific questions about the birth of the universe (see Big Bang Theory; Cosmology); the emergence of structure in the early universe; the formation and evolution of stars, galaxies, and planetary systems; and the conditions for the emergence of life itself.
Most telescopes work by collecting and magnifying visible light that is given off by stars or reflected from the surface of planets. Such instruments are called optical telescopes. Conventional optical telescopes use a curved lens or mirror to collect light and bring it to a focus, a point in space where all the light rays converge (see Optics). A small magnifying lens, called an eyepiece, placed at the focus allows the image to be viewed. In astronomical research, cameras or other instruments placed near the focus make a precise recording of the light gathered by a telescope. The visible light collected by a telescope is divided into component wavelengths, or colors, through a process called spectroscopy. This powerful technique, which uses a prism or diffraction grating, essentially “decodes” starlight to yield information about an object’s temperature, motion and other dynamics, chemical composition, and the presence of magnetic fields.
Light rays, however, are just one part of what scientists call the electromagnetic spectrum. Just as stars emit visible light, they also give off other types of electromagnetic radiation, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared light, ultraviolet light, X rays, and gamma rays. All these forms of electromagnetic radiation are emitted as waves.
Rapid advances in astrophysics and optical technology, coupled with the advent of the space age, broadened telescope technology in the last quarter of the 20th century. Astronomical telescopes today come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, dictated largely by the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum the telescope is designed to view. Telescopes today view the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation sweeping the universe. Each new advance in wavelength coverage has dramatically altered our view of the universe.
Many telescopes are Earth-based, located in astronomical observatories around the world. But only radio waves, visible light, and some infrared radiation can penetrate Earth’s atmosphere and reach the surface of our planet. To overcome this problem, scientists have launched telescopes into space, where the instruments can collect waves from the other regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Bird’s Migration (From Microsoft Company)
Many bird species undergo annual migrations, traveling between seasonally productive habitats. Migration helps birds to have continuous sources of food and water, as well as to avoid environments that are too hot or too cold. Some of the most spectacular bird migrations are made by seabirds, which fly across oceans and along coastlines, sometimes traveling 32,000 km (20,000 mi) or more in a single year. Migrating birds use a variety of cues to find their way. These include the positions of the sun during the day and the stars at night; the earth’s magnetic field; and visual, olfactory, and auditory landmarks. The strict formations in which many birds fly help them on the journey. For example, migrating geese travel in a V-shaped formation, which enables all of the geese except the leader to take advantage of the updrafts generated by the flapping wings of the goose in front. Young birds of many species undertake their first autumn migration with no guidance from experienced adults. These inexperienced birds do not necessarily reach their destinations; many birds stray in the wrong direction and are sometimes observed thousands of kilometers away from their normal route.
 
Bird’s Defense (From Microsoft Company)
The keen eyesight and acute hearing of birds help them react quickly to predators, which may be other birds, such as falcons and hawks, or other types of animals, such as snakes and weasels. Many small birds feed in flocks, where they can benefit from the observing power of numerous pairs of eyes. The first bird in a flock to spot a predator usually warns the others with an alarm call.
Birds that feed alone commonly rely on camouflage and rapid flight as means of evading predators. Many birds have highly specific and unusual defense strategies. The burrowing owl in North America, which lives in the burrows of ground squirrels, frightens off predators by making a call that sounds much like a rattlesnake. The snipe, a wading bird, flees from its enemies with a zigzag flight pattern that is hard for other birds to follow.
Water (From Microsoft Company)
Hydrology is the science concerned with the distribution of water on the earth, its physical and chemical reactions with other naturally occurring substances, and its relation to life on earth; the continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere is known as the hydrological cycle. Under several influences, of which heat is predominant, water is evaporated from both water and land surfaces and is transpired from living cells. This vapor circulates through the atmosphere and is precipitated in the form of rain or snow. See Meteorology.

On striking the surface of the earth, the water follows two paths. In amounts determined by the intensity of the rain and the porosity, permeability, thickness, and previous moisture content of the soil, one part of the water, termed surface runoff, flows directly into rills and streams and thence into oceans or landlocked bodies of water; the remainder infiltrates into the soil. A part of the infiltrated water becomes soil moisture, which may be evaporated directly or may move upward through the roots of vegetation to be transpired from leaves. The portion of the water that overcomes the forces of cohesion and adhesion in the soil profile percolates downward, accumulating in the so-called zone of saturation to form the groundwater reservoir, the surface of which is known as the water table. Under natural conditions, the water table rises intermittently in response to replenishment, or recharge, and then declines as a result of continuous drainage into natural outlets such as springs.



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