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托福听力TPO24原文翻译及解析

2015-07-15 14:01 三立在线 lihongyan

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  TPO 24 Lecture l-Biology (Crocodile Vocalization)

  Professor:OK. For today, let's look at a reptile, a predator that hasn't evolved much in the last seventy million years. No discussion of reptiles would be complete without some mention of crocodiles.Now, we tend to think of crocodiles as, uh, kind of solitary, hiding out in a swamp, uh, kind of mysterious creatures. But we are finding out that they aren't as isolated as they seem. In fact, crocodiles interact with each other in a variety of ways. One way is with vocalizations, you know, sounds generated by the animal. This is true of the whole crocodile family, which includes crocodiles themselves, alligators, etc.Take American alligators. If you were to go to a swamp during the breeding season, you'd hear a chorus of sounds, deep grunts, hisses, these are sounds that male alligators make.And some of them are powerful enough to make the water vibrate. This sends a strong, go-away message to the other males. So the alligator can focus on sending other sound waves through the water, sound waves that you and I couldn't even hear since they are at such low frequency. But they do reach the female alligator, who then goes to find and mate with the male. Vocalization is um...well, it is used for other reasons, like getting attention or just, um... letting others know you are distressed. Let's see. New-born crocodiles, or hatchlings and their interactions with their mothers. When they are born, croc... baby crocodiles have a sort of muffled cry while they are in their nest. Hatchlings are really vulnerable, especially to birds and small mammals when they are born. But their mother, who has been keeping vigil nearby, hears their cry for help and carries them to safety, meaning, to water. So she takes them out of the nest. Uh, uh, all the eggs hatched at once, so she has about forty newborns to look after. Well, she takes about fifteen out of the nest at a time, carrying them in her mouth to the nearby water. While she is taking one load of hatchlings, the others wait for her to come back.But do you think they are quiet about it? No way. They are clamoring for the mother's attention, sort of squeaking and practically saying-don't forget about me!I heard some great examples of this on the television program on crocodiles last week. Anyone catched it? It had a few interesting bits. But you know, uh, you have to be careful, think critically. Sometimes I don't know where these shows find their experts.

  Student:Excuse me. But, um... does all that crying defeat the purpose? I mean, doesn't it attract more predators

  Professor:Hmm...good question. I guess, well, I am guessing that once the babies have the mother's attention, they are safe She's never too far away, and, and I think...I mean, would you mess with a mother crocodile?So after the mother transports all the youngsters, they still call to each other, and to their mother. This communication continues right through to adulthood. Crocodiles have about eighteen different sounds that they can make.There's...um...um… you have deep grunting sounds, hisses, growls, are many different sounds to interact or send messages. This is more typical of mammals than of reptiles. I mean, crocodiles' brains are the most developed of any reptile. In that sense, they are closer to mammals' brains than other reptiles' brains. And we know that mammals, dogs for example, dogs vocalize many different sounds. Crocodiles have a similar level of, uh, vocal sophistication, if you will, which makes them unique among reptiles.Another thing would be, um, if a hatchling gets separated from the rest of its family, once the others get far enough away, its survival instinct kicks in. It will make a loud distress call, which its siblings answer. It calls again. And they continue calling back and forth until they all find each other again.Another thing, something that wasn't on that TV show I mentioned. Um... mother crocodiles lead their young from one area to another, like when they have to find a different source of water. Usually she will lead them at night, when it is safer for them, moving ahead and then letting out calls of reassurance so that they will follow her. Her voice helps give the babies the courage they need to leave the area and go some place that's a more desirable home for them.

  Lecture2-Art History (Modern Dance)

  Professor:As we have been studying, ballet, the classical ballet, is based on formalized movements, specific positioning of the arms, feet and the body. So, now let's move on to modern dance, also known as theatrical dance. Modern dance evolved in the late nineteenth, early twentieth century, and in most cases, audiences were very receptive to this radical new type of performing art.

  Student:Um... what made modern dance so radical? Professor:Well, for example, I think the best analogy to modern dance is modern art or modern music. Compared to their classical predecessors, these newer art forms are freer, more experimental, more improvisational. Modern dance seeks to show how deep emotions and the music itself, how these intangible attributes can affect and inspire physical movement, and how movement can convey emotions to the audience. As I said, in classical ballet, emotions are conveyed through a set of strictly formalized movements.Now, a pioneer of modern dance was Isadora Duncan, who was born in 1878. Isadora Duncan did study ballet briefly as a child, but she quickly developed her own unique style, which she called free dance. And by age fourteen, she was teaching her free dance to young children and giving recitals.Her early dance technique was loosely based on the natural movements of children, running, skipping, acting out stories, also on motions from nature, waves crashing onto shore, trees swaying in the wind. Her expressive gestures were motivated from within rather than from being dictated by strict technique. Duncan also wore her hair down, ballerinas typically wear their hair in a tight bun behind the head. And instead of the short steep skirts and rigid toeshoes worn by ballerinas, Duncan wore loose, flowing tunics, and she dance bare foot. Now, that was something her audiences had never seen before.Duncan performed in Paris composers, but avoiding set audiences, for the most part, and other European cities, dancing to the music of classical movements and steps, no two performances were alike. And adored her.In 1904, she opened a school of modern dance in Berlin. And the next year she performed in Russia. But the Russian critics were not really kind. Some said Duncan's art form was closer to pantomime than to dance. But her style was a clear rebellion against ballet, and ballet is extremely important in Russia. A question, Julie?

  Student:Yeah. What did Duncan have against ballet? I mean, she studied it as a child.

  Professor:As a youngster, she might have found it too restrictive, uh, not creative enough. I think that feeling is exemplied by something that happened earlier in her career, in Russia. Duncan attended a ballet, and the lead dancer was the renowned Russian ballerina,Ana Pavlova. The following day, Pavlova invited Duncan to watch her practice.Duncan accepted but was appalled by what she saw. To her, the exercises that Pavlova and the other ballerinas were doing seemed painful, even harmful, standing on tiptoe for hours, moving their bodies in unnatural ways. After seeing this, Duncan publically denounced ballet as a form of acrobatics, uh, complicated and excruciating mechanism she called it. This critic generated I think some undue rivalry between ballet and modern dance, and it would take a long time, many years in fact, for the rivalry to calm down

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