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Pulitzer Prizes Winner教你托福写作

2018-12-12 17:23 小马过河 admin

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摘要:The Pulitzer Prizes,普利策奖也被称为普利策新闻奖,是美国新闻界的一项最高荣誉奖。 由贾雷德戴蒙德教授所著的《枪炮、病菌与钢铁》(Guns, Germs and Steel)于1998年获得普利策奖。该书用词规范、语言丰富、涉猎领域广泛,简直是为托福考试量身打造的一本书。作者作为语言学家的儿子,书中熟练使用各种学术范儿词汇和表达,遣词造句也是

The Pulitzer Prizes,普利策奖也被称为普利策新闻奖,是美国新闻界的一项最高荣誉奖。


由贾雷德·戴蒙德教授所著的《枪炮、病菌与钢铁》(Guns, Germs and Steel)于1998年获得普利策奖。该书用词规范、语言丰富、涉猎领域广泛,简直是为托福考试量身打造的一本书。作者作为语言学家的儿子,书中熟练使用各种学术范儿词汇和表达,遣词造句也是各种讲究,几乎每三行就出现一道托福阅读词汇题,每页都可以拿句话来做句子简化题。更重要的是,这本书几乎集合了托福考试中出现的除天文学外的全部学科,包括历史人文考古地理生物,TPO中多次出现的Clovis people,在本书第一章就撞车!


《枪炮病菌与钢铁》也许是最适合提高托福硬实力的材料,小编将分上下两篇给大家介绍书中的学术表达,希望能给大家托福写作能力提升带来实实在在的帮助。

接下来就给各位同学选取几个精彩的片段进行讲解,大家做好笔记哦~~~

Formerly, all people on earth were hunter-gatherers. Why did any of them adopt food production at all? Given that they must have had some reason, why did they do so around 8500 B.C. in Mediterranean habitats of the Fertile Crescent, only 3,000 years later in the climatically and structurally similar Mediterranean habitats of southwestern Europe, and never indigenously in the similar Mediterranean habitats of California, southwestern Australia, and the Cape of South Africa? Why did even people of the Fertile Crescent wait until 8500 B.C., instead of becoming food producers already around 18,500 or 28,500 B.C.?


1.Formerly:在过去;句首结构词,适用于主体段或开头段,引入一个发生在过去的背景或现象替换表达:Previously/In the past/举例:在过去,大部分普通人通过写信的方式和他人沟通Formerly, the majority of ordinary people communicated with others through writing letters.
2.adopt food production:采取粮食生产(的方式),表示“采用”的动词搭配,适用于主体段论证或列举细节替换表达:choose the practice food production举例:现代公司采用各种先进的方式确保员工的工作效率Modern companies adopt various cutting-edge approaches to ensure employees' work efficiency.
3.Given that ,基于…的缘故,句首结构词,适用于主体段论证句交代原因替换表达:Due to the fact that / As a result of 由于缺乏资金,越来越多的国家开始停止环保投入Given that an increasing number of countries lack funds, they have started to dispense with environmental spendings.
From our modern perspective, all these questions at first seem silly, because the drawbacks of being a hunter-gatherer appear so obvious. Scientists used to quote a phrase of Thomas Hobbes's in order to characterize the lifestyle of hunter-gatherers as "nasty, brutish, and short." They seemed to have to work hard, to be driven by the daily quest for food, often to be close to starvation, to lack such elementary material comforts as soft beds and adequate clothing, and to die young.
4. From our modern perspective: 从当代视野来看,句首结构词,适用于开头段或主体段引入背景替换表达:Judging from the modern perspective / According to current opinions, 举例:从当代视野来看,传统的教育模式不再适合学生的需求From our modern perspective, traditional educational models no longer fit for students' needs.
5.drawbacks: 缺点,常用词,适用于主体段总结观点或衡量选项利弊时使用替换表达:disadvantages举例:这项政策最明显的缺点在于其导致的空气污染The most significant drawback of such policy is the resulting air pollution。
6.lack such elementary material comforts as soft beds and adequate clothing:表示“缺少某些东西”的细节表达,适用于主体段论证或列举细节替换表达:do not enjoy/own/possess things including … 举例:过去的人们的日常饮食缺少例如蛋白质、矿物质等营养物质People's diets from the past lacked such nutritions as protein, minerals, to name a few.

In reality, only for today's affluent First World citizens, who don't actually do the work of raising food themselves, does food production (by remote agribusinesses) mean less physical work, more comfort, freedom from starvation, and a longer expected lifetime. Most peasant farmers and herders, who constitute the great majority of the world's actual food pro- ducers, aren't necessarily better off than hunter-gatherers. Time budget studies show that they may spend more rather than fewer hours per day at work than hunter-gatherers do. Archaeologists have demonstrated that the first farmers in many areas were smaller and less well nourished, suffered from more serious diseases, and died on the average at a younger age than the hunter-gatherers they replaced. If those first farmers could have foreseen the consequences of adopting food production, they might not have opted to do so. Why, unable to foresee the result, did they nevertheless make that choice?


7.In reality: 在现实中,句首结构词,适用于开头段或主体段引入背景

替换表达:In contemporary society / For years / Over the past decades

举例:现实中,拥有自信的年轻人更容易在职场上取得客户的信任

In reality, young adults with confidence are more likely to earn clients' trust.

范文应用:In reality, the practice of enjoying regular family meals plays a vital part in household activities. (2018.1.6/开头段)

8.only for XXX does YYY mean ZZZ : 只有对XXX来说,YYY才意味着ZZZ;倒装句式,强调并明确某个观点时使用,适用于主体段解释观点

替换表达:For XXX, YYY cause ZZZ

举例:只有对少数国家来说,经济发展才意味着环境不会被破坏

Only for a limited number of countries does economic development mean that the environment does not suffer from damage.

9.constitute the great majority of XXX:构成XXX的大多数,适用于开头段引入背景或主体段论证

替换表达:make up for a large proportion of XXX

举例:大学生构成了绝大部分乘坐地铁的日常通勤者

College students constitute the great majority of daily metro commuters.

10.suffered from more serious diseases: 遭受(更严重的疾病),陈述负面情况时使用,适用于主体段论证

替换表达:experience worse medical conditions

举例:空气质量的恶化让老年人更易遭受严重疾病的侵袭

Worsening of the air quality causes senior citizens to suffer from more serious diseases.

11.opted to:选择,基础动词搭配,和choose替换使用,适用于开头段总结观点、主体段论证、结尾段总结观点

举例:越来越多的人选择跑步、骑车等体育锻炼来缓解压力

An increasing number of citizens opt to attend sports activities such as running or cycling to release their pressure.


There exist many actual cases of hunter-gatherers who did see food production practiced by their neighbors, and who nevertheless refused to accept its supposed blessings and instead remained hunter-gatherers. For instance, Aboriginal hunter-gatherers of northeastern Australia traded for thousands of years with farmers of the Torres Strait Islands, between Aus- tralia and New Guinea. California Native American hunter-gatherers traded with Native American farmers in the Colorado River valley. In addition, Khoi herders west of the Fish River of South Africa traded with Bantu farmers east of the Fish River, and continued to dispense with farm- ing themselves. Why?

12.There exist many actual cases of XXX: 存在许多XXX的真实案例,适用于主体段举例

替换表达:Actual cases of XXX exist where …

举例:有很多真实案例,受到良好教育的人才因为环境污染而离开自己的国家

There exist many actual cases of well-educated talents who leave their countries due to environmental pollution.

13.dispense with: 摒弃、放弃,基础动词表达,适用于开头段总结观点或主体段举例

替换表达:give up / abandon

举例:放弃容易受伤的运动项目是一种有效的保护自己的途径Dispensing with sports activities where injuries are more likely to happen is an effective approach to protect oneself.

Still other hunter-gatherers in contact with farmers did eventually become farmers, but only after what may seem to us like an inordinately long delay. For example, the coastal peoples of northern Germany did not adopt food production until 1,300 years after peoples of the Linearband- keramik culture introduced it to inland parts of Germany only 125 miles to the south. Why did those coastal Germans wait so long, and what led them finally to change their minds?

14.inordinately: 过度地;适用于描述某个负面情况起强调作用

替换表达:excessively / in an unrestrained manner

举例:过度地放松会加重一个人的心理压力

Inordinate relaxation acutally ends up worsening one's mental stress.

BEFORE WE CAN answer these questions, we must dispel some miscon- ceptions about the origins of food production and then reformulate the question. What actually happened was not a discovery of food production, nor an invention, as we might first assume. There was often not even a conscious choice between food production and hunting-gathering. Specifically, in each area of the globe the first people who adopted food pro- duction could obviously not have been making a conscious choice or consciously striving toward farming as a goal, because they had never seen farming and had no way of knowing what it would be like. Instead, as we shall see, food production evolved as a by-product of decisions made without awareness of their consequences. Hence the question that we have to ask is why food production did evolve, why it evolved in some places but not others, why at different times in different places, and why not instead at some earlier or later date.

15.Specifically: 具体来说;句首结构词,用于主体段论证句或引入背景使用

替换表达:to be more specific; to put in a more detailed way; in particular

举例:具体来说,学生通过社交媒体、网络游戏等互联网服务来获得娱乐

Specifically, students get entertained through internet services including social media, online gaming, and things like that.

16.in each area of the globe: 在地球的每个地区;适用于开头段或引入背景

替换表达:across various regions in the world

举例:在地球上每个地方,互联网几乎都成为了人们生活的一部分

In almost every area of the globe, internet has become a part of people's lifestyle.

17.consciously striving toward XXX as a goal: 有意识地以XXX为努力目标;适用于开头段或主体段引入背景

替换表达:intentionally aim for XXX

举例:现代家庭有意识地以提高生活品质为目标

Modern families consciously strive toward a higher living standard as a goal

18.without awareness of their consequences: 意识不到它们的后果;适用于主体段引入背景,交代某种负面情况

替换表达:with limited knowledge of their results

举例:作弊的学生在并未意识到其行为后果的情况下承担了巨大的风险

Students who cheat in exams undertake tremendous risks without awareness of their consequences.

19.Hence: 因此;句首结构词,用于主体段或结尾段总结

替换表达:Thus / Therefore / As a result / Consequently

举例:因此,这项政策的整体优点超过了缺点

Hence the overall advantages of such policy outweigh its drawbacks.


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