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托福TPO真题阅读每日解析—Groundwater答案解析

2018-04-23 09:39 三立在线 admin

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摘要:本文内容为欣宇老师精心分析的前一天TPO阅读文章各项内容,包括文章逐句翻译、答案及题目解析、段意及难句分析和词汇汇总四部分内容。全面、精细、深入地剖析具有生命的每一篇

 原文链接:托福TPO真题阅读每日解析—Groundwater答案解析   来源:三立在线  作者: 心语

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    Groundwater答案及题目解析
    Key:
    1. C 2. C 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. C 10.B 11.D 12. A 13. D 14. 1 2 3
 
    题目解析:
    1. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about the ground that we walk on?(Inference Question)
    A. It cannot hold rainwater for long periods of time.
    B. It prevents most groundwater from circulating.
    C. It absorbs most of the water it contains from rivers.
    D. It has the capacity to store large amounts of water.
    相关原句:
    At first thought it seems incredible that there can be enough space in the “solid” ground underfoot to hold all this water. (Paragraph 1)
    本题解析:
    文中指出地下居然能储存这麽多水是不可思议的,也就是说地下可以存储大量水,因此选择D。
    正确答案:D
 
    2. The word “incredible” in the passage is closest in meaning to (Vocabulary Question)
    A.Unbelievable
    B.Comforting
    C.Confusing
    D.Interesting
    相关原句:
    At first thought it seems incredible that there can be enough space in the “solid” ground underfoot to hold all this water. (Paragraph 1)
    本题解析:
    incredible意为“不可思议的”,即“难以相信的(unbelievable)”,因此选择A。
    正确答案:A
 
    3. The word “out of sight” in the passage is closest in meaning to (Vocabulary Question)
    A. Far away
    B. Partly visible
    C. Hidden
    D. Discovered
    相关原句:
    Beds of this material, out of sight beneath the soil, are common.(Paragraph 2)
    本题解析:
    Out of sight意为“看不见的”,文中指被土壤掩盖了的,即“藏起来的(hidden)”,因此选择C。
    正确答案:C
 
    4. According to paragraph 2, where is groundwater usually found?(Factual Information Question)
    A.Inside pieces of sand and gravel
    B.On top of beds of rock
    C.In fast rivers that are flowing beneath the soil
    D.In spaces between pieces of sediment
    相关原句:
    The commonest spaces are those among the particles—sand grains and tiny pebbles—of loose, unconsolidated sand and gravel. (Paragraph 2)
    本题解析:
    第二段指出最普遍的地下水存储空间在于疏松土壤和沙石间的空隙,因此选择D。
    正确答案:D
 
    5. The phrase “glacial outwash” in the passage refers to (Reference Question)
    A.Fast rivers
    B.Glaciers
    C.The huge volumes of water created by glacial melting
    D.The particles carried in water from melting glaciers
    相关原句:
    The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash, that was deposited as the flow slowed down. (Paragraph 2)
    本题解析:
    “glacial outwash”指的即是河水所承载的鹅卵石、沙石和沙子等,因此选择D。
    正确答案:D
 
    6. All of the following are mentioned in paragraph 3 as places that sediment-laden rivers can deposit their sediments EXCEPT(Negative Factual Information Question)
    A. A mountain valley
    B. Flat land
    C. A lake floor
    D. The seafloor
    相关原句:
    …wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows…(Paragraph 3)
    Sediments are also dropped where a river slows on entering a lake or the sea, the deposited sediments are on a lake floor or the seafloor at first…(Paragraph 3)
    本题解析:
    本段指出了三处沉积物沉淀的地点:平地(flat land),湖床(a lake floor),海床(the seafloor)。山谷(mountain valley)是沉淀物的来源地,不是沉淀地点,因此选择A。
    正确答案:A
 
    7. The word “overlie” in the passage is closest in meaning to (Vocabulary Question)
    A. Cover
    B. Change
    C. Separate
    D. Surround
    相关原句:
    In lowland country almost any spot on the ground may overlie what was once the bed of a river that has since become buried by soil;(Paragraph 4)
    本题解析:
    overlie意为“叠加、覆盖”,与cover同义,因此选择A。
    正确答案:A
 
    8. The phrase “so much for” in the passage is closest in meaning to(Vocabulary Question)
    A. That is enough about
    B. Now let us turn to
    C. Of greater concern are
    D. This is related to
    相关原句:
    So much for unconsolidated sediments.(Paragraph 5)
    本题解析:
    so much for意为“暂时说这些…”,文章接下来要讲述有关consolidated sediments,因此关于上文中的疏松沉淀物暂时谈这些。因此选择A。
    正确答案:A
 
    9. The word “plugged” in the passage is closet in meaning to (Vocabulary Question)
    A. Washed
    B. Dragged
    C. Filled up
    D. Soaked through
    相关原句:
    This is because the gaps among the original grains are often not totally plugged with cementing chemicals; (Paragraph 5)
    本题解析:
    plug意为“塞住”,指沙石缝隙被“填塞住(fill up)”,因此选择C。
    正确答案:C
 
    10. According to paragraphs 6 and 7, why is basalt unlike most crystalline forms of rock?(Factual Information Question)
    A.It is unusually solid
    B.It often has high porosity.
    C.It has a low proportion of empty space.
    D.It is highly permeable.
    相关原句:Most crystalline rocks are much more solid; a common exception is basalt, a form of solidified volcanic lava, which is sometimes full of tiny bubbles that make it very porous.(Paragraph 6)
    本题解析:
    大多数结晶岩石都很坚硬,而玄武岩不同,它具有很多气孔(very porous),因此选择B。
    正确答案:B
 
    11. What is the main purpose of paragraph 7?(Rhetorical Purpose Question)
    A.To explain why water can flow through rock
    B.To emphasize the large amount of empty space in all rock
    C.To point out that a rock cannot be both porous and permeable
    D.To distinguish between two related properties of rock
    相关原句:
    But note that porosity is not the same as permeability…(Paragraph 7)
    本题解析:
    本段主要对多孔性和可渗透性这两个岩石的性质做了区别,因此选择D。
    正确答案:D
 
    12. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? (Sentence Simplification Question)
    A.Surface tension is not strong enough to retain drops of water in rocks with large pores but it strong enough to hold on to thin films of water in rocks with small pores.
    B.Water in rocks is held in place by large pores and drains away from small size pores through surface tension.
    C.Small pores and large pores both interact with surface tension to determine whether a rock will hold water as heavy drops or as a thin film.
    D.If the force of surface tension is too weak to hold water in place as heavy drops, the water will continue to be held firmly in place as a thin film when large pores exist.
    相关原句:
    If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surface tension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension holding them in place; then the water will be firmly held.(Paragraph 9)
    本题解析:
    本句指出:如果孔大,其中的水会变为水滴,水滴太沉,岩石表面张力握不住,水便会排出;但如果孔足够小,其中的水会变成薄膜,薄膜很轻,无法挣脱表面张力的控制,这样水便会被紧紧收住。因此选择A。
    注意:C选项错误在于:并不是孔与张力相互作用,而应是水与张力相互作用。
    正确答案:A
 
    13. Look at the four squares [ █ ] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.(Insert Text Question)
    What, then, determines what proportion of the water stays and what proportion drains away?
    Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
    Much of the water in a sample of water-saturated sediment or rock will drain from it if the sample is put in a suitable dry place.█(A)But some will remain, clinging to all solid surfaces.█(B) It is held there by the force of surface tension without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it totally dry.█(C) The total volume of water in the saturated sample must therefore be thought of as consisting of water that can, and water that cannot, drain away.█(D)What, then, determines what proportion of the water stays and what proportion drains away?
    本题解析:
    插入句中“what proportion of the water stays ”与“ what proportion drains away”暗示着其前一句必有关于两种水份的存在的内容,而原段末句恰总结了岩石中所含种水份“water that can and water that cannot drain away”,因此选择D。
    正确答案:D
    
    14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.(Prose Summary Question)
    Much of the ground is actually saturated with water.
    ●
    ●
    ●
    Answer choices
    1.Sediments that hold water were spread by glaciers and are still spread by rivers and streams. (√)
    2.Water is stored underground in beds of loose sand and gravel or in cemented sediment. (√)
    3.The size of a saturated rock’s pores determines how much water it will retain when the rock is put in a dry place. (√)
    4.Groundwater often remains underground for a long time before it emerges again.
    5.Like sandstone, basalt is a crystalline rock that is very porous.
    6.Beds of unconsolidated sediments are typically located at inland sites that were once underwater.
 
    本题解析:
    正确答案应陈述文章主要内容----承载地下水的物质(疏松沉淀物和非疏松沙石)以及其吸附水份的空间。
    1.选项内容指出了疏松沉淀物来自于冰川或河流的扩展,文中二三两段中描述了冰川和如今的河流如何将承载的疏松物质沉淀下来,1正确。
    2.选项内容总结了地下水储存的两种物质:疏松沉积物和非疏松沙石,2正确。
    3.选项内容指出了地下蓄水岩石的孔大小决定了水份被排除还是被保留,末端总结了这一内容:孔大则水排出,孔小则水储存,3正确。
    4.属细节内容,4错误。
    5.属细节内容,5错误。
    6.文中指出非疏松沉积物后来有可能位移至内陆,但并未说明内陆曾经有地下水(were once underwater),6错误。
    正确答案:1,2,3
 
 
    l 段意及难句解析:
    ●第一段:
    段意:
    讲述何为地下水以及其最主要的形式之一:气象水。
    难句分析:
    1.Ordinary meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground from the surface, from precipitation (rain and snow) and from lakes and streams.
    短语:soak into:渗入
    主干:Ordinary meteoric water is water that has soaked into the ground…
    释义:普通气象水是那些通过地表,从降水和河流渗入到地下的水分。
    2. There it remains, sometimes for long periods, before emerging at the surface again. At first thought it seems incredible that there can be enough space in the “solid” ground underfoot to hold all this water.
    短语:at first thought:起初看来
    分句:there it remains before emerging at the surface again:指在重新涌出地表之前,气象水会存留(remains)在地下
    it seems incredible that…:…看上去是不可思议的
    释义:在重新涌出地表之前,有时候有相当长一段时间,地下水都会存于地下。然而起初看来,坚硬的地面下居然能有足够空间容纳这麽多水是不可思议的。
 
    ●第二段:
    段意:
    指出承载地下水的空间有很多形式,其中最普通的一种便是地下疏松沙石层的颗粒间的空隙。接着描述了这种疏松沙石层的形成。
    难句分析:
    1. The commonest spaces are those among the particles—sand grains and tiny pebbles—of loose, unconsolidated sand and gravel.
    分句:particles of loose, unconsolidated sand and gravel:疏松沙石的颗粒(如沙粒和小鹅卵石:sand grains and tiny pebbles)
    释义:最普通的一种空隙存在于疏松而不坚实的沙石中的颗粒----沙粒和小鹅卵石----之间。
    2. They are found wherever fast rivers carrying loads of coarse sediment once flowed.
    短语:coarse sediment once flowed:曾经漂流的粗糙沉淀物
    loads of:一载载的,一堆堆的
    释义:只要哪里有湍急的河流载着粗糙的曾经漂流的沉淀物,哪里就能发现这种物质层。
    3. The water was always laden with pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash, that was deposited as the flow slowed down.
    短语:be laden with:负载着…
    pebbles, gravel, and sand, known as glacial outwash:指冰水沉积物包括鹅卵石、碎石和沙子
    分句:that was deposited as the flow slowed down:随着水流渐缓而沉积下来
    释义:融化的水总是载着被称为冰水沉积物的鹅卵石、碎石和沙子,它们随着水流渐缓而沉积下来。
 
    ●第三段:
    段意:
    讲述如今这种疏松沙石层的形成,或沉积于平原,或沉积于河流入海口。
    难句分析:
    1. The same thing happens to this day, though on a smaller scale, wherever a sediment-laden river or stream emerges from a mountain valley onto relatively flat land, dropping its load as the current slows: the water usually spreads out fanwise, depositing the sediment in the form of a smooth, fan-shaped slope.
    短语:a sediment-laden river or stream:载满沉积物的河流或小溪
    emerge from…onto:从…发源,流至…
    spreads out:向四周展开
    in the form of:以…的形式
    a smooth, fan-shaped slope:光滑的扇形斜面
    释义:如今也发生着同样的事情,虽然规模较小。有满载沉淀物的河流或小溪从山谷出发向下蔓延到相对平坦的地面,当水流渐缓时便将沉淀物留下:河水通常呈扇形展开,将沉淀物以光滑的扇形斜面形式沉积下来。
    2. Sediments are also dropped where a river slows on entering a lake or the sea, the deposited sediments are on a lake floor or the seafloor at first, but will be located inland at some future date, when the sea level falls or the land rises; such beds are sometimes thousands of meters thick.
    分句:where a river slows on entering a lake or the sea:指河流在入湖或海(on entering a lake or sea)时流速减缓
    主干:sediments are also dropped where…,the deposited sediments are on…,but will be located…,when…;such beds are thousands of meters thick
    释义:当河流接近湖泊或海洋时沉淀物也会被沉积下,沉积物起初会存在于湖床或海床,但随着未来当海平面下降或陆地上升时,沉积物便会移动到内陆去;这些沉积物层(such beds)有时有数千米厚。
 
    ●第四段:
    段意:
    讲述沉积物层的最终形成:如果在水平面下,其所含的沙石就会被地下水浸透。
    难句分析:
    In lowland country almost any spot on the ground may overlie what was once the bed of a river that has since become buried by soil;
    分句:any spot on the ground:地面上任何一点
    what was once the bed of a river:河流曾经的河床地带,作may overlie的宾语
    a river that has since become buried by soil:已经被土壤所掩埋的河流
    释义:在低地国家,几乎地面上任何一点都有可能叠加在被土壤掩埋的河流的河床上。
 
    ●第五段:
    段意:
    讲述非疏松沉积物如何也能储藏地下水:它们也存在空隙。
    难句分析:
    This is because the gaps among the original grains are often not totally plugged with cementing chemicals; also, parts of the original grains may become     dissolved by percolating groundwater, either while consolidation is taking place or at any time afterwards.
    短语:be plugged with:被…塞住
    cementing chemicals:胶黏性化学物质
    become dissolved by:被…所溶解
    释义:这是因为原始沙石间的缝隙通常并未被胶黏的化学物质完全填塞;同时,部分原始沙石有可能被渗透下来的地下水溶解,溶解过程无论是在沙石坚化发生之时还是以后的某一时期都会进行。
 
    ●第六段:
    段意:
    总结无论是疏松的还是粘结的沉积物都具有空隙。
    难句分析:
    Most crystalline rocks are much more solid; a common exception is basalt, a form of solidified volcanic lava, which is sometimes full of tiny bubbles that make it very porous.
    短语:solidified volcanic lava:硬化后的火山岩浆
    释义:大多数结晶岩石更加坚硬;一个典型例外是玄武岩,一种硬化了的火山岩浆形式,它有时充满了小气泡,这使它非常多孔。
 
    ●第七段:
    段意:
    本段主要对多孔性和可渗透性做了区别。
    难句分析:
    But note that porosity is not the same as permeability, which measures the ease with which water can flow through a material; this depends on the sizes of the individual cavities and the crevices linking them.
    分句:“the ease with which water can flow through a material”:指水通过某一物质的容易程度
    cavities and the crevices linking them:连接沙石的空隙和裂缝
    释义:但需注意多孔性不同于可渗透性。可渗透性丈量的是水流通过某一物质的容易程度,它取决于连接沙石的单个空隙和裂缝的大小。
 
    ●第八段:
    段意:
    本段将浸水的沉积物样本中所含的水分为可排出和不可排出两部分。
    难句分析:
    The total volume of water in the saturated sample must therefore be thought of as consisting of water that can, and water that cannot, drain away.
    短语:be thought of as:被认为是…
    释义:因此,浸水样本所含的所有水份必须被分为两部分:可排除的与不可排除的。
 
    ●第九段:
    段意:
    本段指出不同岩石中两种水份的含量大为不同,这取决于岩石的多孔性。
    难句分析:
    If the pores are large, the water in them will exist as drops too heavy for surface tension to hold, and it will drain away; but if the pores are small enough, the water in them will exist as thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension holding them in place; then the water will be firmly held.
    分句:drops (that are) too heavy for surface tension to hold:由于过重而导致岩石表面张力无法收控住的水滴
    surface tension holding them in place:将(水滴)收控住的表面张力
    …thin films, too light to overcome the force of surface tension:薄膜过轻,无法挣脱张力的控制
    主干:If the pores are large,the water will exsit as … and will drain away;but if the pores are small enough,the water will exsit as…,then will be held
    释义:如果孔大,其中的水会变为水滴,水滴太沉,表面张力握不住,水便会排出;但如果孔足够小,其中的水会变成薄膜,薄膜很轻,无法挣脱表面张力的控制,这样水便会被紧紧收住。
 

 

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         托福TPO真题阅读每日解析—Groundwater原文分析

         托福TPO真题阅读每日解析—Groundwater长难句分析

 

 



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