您的位置:小马过河 > 托福频道页 > 托福阅读 > 托福TPO真题阅读每日解析:THE ORIGINS OF THEATER原文分析
400-920-8185

托福TPO真题阅读每日解析:THE ORIGINS OF THEATER原文分析

2018-12-07 16:08 小马过河 admin

分享到:0

摘要:本文内容为欣宇老师精心分析的前一天TPO阅读文章各项内容,包括文章逐句翻译、答案及题目解析、段意及难句分析和词汇汇总四部分内容。全面、精细、深入地剖析具有生命的每一篇

本文系小马过河论坛会员原创文章,转载请注明出处

 
→In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.
 
→Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations. As a people becomes more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites. But the myths that have grown up around the rites may continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites. When this occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns.
 
→Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being. Storytelling has been proposed as one alternative. Under this theory, relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures. Thus, the recalling of an event (a hunt, battle, or other feat) is elaborated through the narrator’s pantomime and impersonation and eventually through each role being assumed by a different person.
 
→A closely related theory sees theater as evolving out of dances that are primarily pantomimic, rhythmical or gymnastic, or from imitations of animal noises and sounds. Admiration for the performer’s skill, virtuosity, and grace are seen as motivation for elaborating the activities into fully realized theatrical performances.
 
→In addition to exploring the possible antecedents of theater, scholars have also theorized about the motives that led people to develop theater. Why did theater develop, and why was it valued after it ceased to fulfill the function of ritual? Most answers fall back on the theories about the human mind and basic human needs. One, set forth by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., sees humans as naturally imitative—as taking pleasure in imitating persons, things, and actions and in seeing such imitations. Another, advanced in the twentieth century, suggests that humans have a gift for fantasy, through which they seek to reshape reality into more satisfying forms than those encountered in daily life. Thus, fantasy or fiction (of which drama is one form) permits people to objectify their anxieties and fears, confront them, and fulfill their hopes in fiction if not fact. The theater, then, is one tool whereby people define and understand their world or escape from unpleasant realities.
 
→But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed. One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense. For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
 
→Paragraph 1: In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual. The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being. Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces. Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.
 
1. The word “championed” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.Changed
B.Debated
C.Created
D.Supported
2. The word “attributes” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.Ascribes
B.Leaves
C.Limits
D.Contrasts
3. According to paragraph 1, theories of the origins of theater
A.Are mainly hypothetical
B.Are well supported by factual evidence
C.Have rarely been agreed upon by anthropologists
D.Were expressed in the early stages of theater’s development
4. According to paragraph 1, why did some societies develop and repeat ceremonial actions?
A.To establish a positive connection between the members of the society
B.To help society members better understand the forces controlling their food supply
C.To distinguish their beliefs from those of other societies
D.To increase the society’s prosperity
 
→Paragraph 2:Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence. Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations. As a people becomes more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites. But the myths that have grown up around the rites may continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites. When this occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns.
 
5. The word “this” in the passage refers to
A.The acting out of rites
B.The divorce of ritual performers from the rest of society
C.The separation of myths from rites
D.The celebration of supernatural forces
6. The word “autonomous” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.Artistic
B.Important
C.Independent
D.Established
7. According to paragraph 2, what may cause societies to abandon certain rites?
A.Emphasizing theater as entertainment
B.Developing a new understanding of why events occur.
C.Finding a more sophisticated way of representing mythical characters
D.Moving from a primarily oral tradition to a more written tradition
 
→Paragraph 5:In addition to exploring the possible antecedents of theater, scholars have also theorized about the motives that led people to develop theater. Why did theater develop, and why was it valued after it ceased to fulfill the function of ritual? Most answers fall back on the theories about the human mind and basic human needs. One, set forth by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., sees humans as naturally imitative—as taking pleasure in imitating persons, things, and actions and in seeing such imitations. Another, advanced in the twentieth century, suggests that humans have a gift for fantasy, through which they seek to reshape reality into more satisfying forms than those encountered in daily life. Thus, fantasy or fiction (of which drama is one form) permits people to objectify their anxieties and fears, confront them, and fulfill their hopes in fiction if not fact. The theater, then, is one tool whereby people define and understand their world or escape from unpleasant realities.
 
8. All of following are mentioned in paragraph 5 as possible reasons that led societies to develop theater EXCEPT:
A.Theater allows people to face that they are afraid of.
B.Theater gives an opportunity to imagine a better reality.
C.Theater is a way to enjoy imitating other people.
D.Theater provides people the opportunity to better understand the human mind.
9. Which of the following best describes the organization of paragraph 5?
A.The author presents two theories for a historical phenomenon.
B.The author argues against theories expressed earlier in the passage.
C.The author argues for replacing older theories with a new one.
DThe author points out problems with two popular theories.
 
→Paragraph 6: But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed. One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense. For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
 
10.The word “penchant” in the passage is closest in meaning to
A.Compromise
B.Inclination
C.Tradition
D.Respect
11.Why does the author mention “comedy”?
A.To give an example of early types of theater
B.To explain how theater helps a society respond to threats to its welfare
C.To help explain why detachment is needed for the development of theater
D.To show how theatrical performers become detached from other members of society.
12.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A.A society’s rites were more likely to be retained in the oral tradition if its myths were admired for artistic qualities.
B.The artistic quality of a myth was sometimes an essential reason for a society to abandon it from the oral tradition.
C.Some early societies stopped using myths in their religious practices when rites ceased to be seen as useful for social well-being.
D.Myths sometimes survived in a society’s tradition because of their artistic qualities even after they were no longer deemed religiously beneficial.
 
→Paragraph 3:█(A)Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being.█(B) Storytelling has been proposed as one alternative. █(C)Under this theory, relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures.█(D) Thus, the recalling of an event (a hunt, battle, or other feat) is elaborated through the narrator’s pantomime and impersonation and eventually through each role being assumed by a different person.
 
13.Look at the four squares [ █ ] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
 
To enhance their listener’s enjoyment, storytellers continually make their stores more engaging and memorable.
Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square to add the sentence to the passage.
14.Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Anthropologists have developed many theories to help understand why and how theater originated.
Answer choices
1.The presence of theater in almost all societies is thought to have occurred because early story tellers traveled to different groups to tell their stores.
2.Many theorists believe that theater arises when societies act out myths to preserve social well-being.
3.The more sophisticated societies became, the better they could influence desirable occurrences through ritualized theater.
4.Some theories of theater development focus on how theater was used by group leaders to group leaders govern other members of society.
5.Theater may have come from pleasure humans receive from storytelling and moving rhythmically.
 
6.The human capacities for imitation and fantasy are considered possible reasons why societies develop theater
 
l 文章逐句翻译
第一段:
In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw.
由于缺少具体材料,人们在研究戏剧起源时不得不主要依赖猜想。
The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual.
19世纪末20世纪初,一些人类学家支持的理论得到了世人的广泛认同,该理论视戏剧为一种脱胎于神秘和宗教仪式的艺术。
The process perceived by these anthropologists may be summarized briefly. During the early stages of its development, a society becomes aware of forces that appear to influence or control its food supply and well-being.
科学家们推论的过程可以简单地概括如下:在戏剧发展的早期,人们察觉到某种力量可以影响甚至操控其食物来源和生活状态。
Having little understanding of natural causes, it attributes both desirable and undesirable occurrences to supernatural or magical forces, and it searches for means to win the favor of these forces.
由于缺乏对自然知识,人们便把一些合理或不合理的事情都归咎于超自然的或魔幻的力量,并试图寻找各种能够迎合这些力量的途径。
Perceiving an apparent connection between certain actions performed by the group and the result it desires, the group repeats, refines and formalizes those actions into fixed ceremonies, or rituals.
当意识到自己的某些行为和期许的结果之间存在明显的联系后,人们便开始不断重复,修正进而完善这些行为,使之成为固定的典礼或宗教仪式。
 
第二段
Stories (myths) may then grow up around a ritual. Frequently the myths include representatives of those supernatural forces that the rites celebrate or hope to influence.
神话故事逐渐围绕这些仪式诞生出来,其中经常囊括了宗教仪式所试图影响的超自然力量的原型。
Performers may wear costumes and masks to represent the mythical characters or supernatural forces in the rituals or in accompanying celebrations.
在仪式或庆典举行过程中,表演者们会穿上戏装和面具来扮演神秘角色或超自然力量。
As a people becomes more sophisticated, its conceptions of supernatural forces and causal relationships may change. As a result, it may abandon or modify some rites.
然而,随着人类变得更加精于世故,其对超自然力量和相关因果关系的定义发生了改变,因而人们选择抛弃或修改某些仪式。
But the myths that have grown up around the rites may continue as part of the group’s oral tradition and may even come to be acted out under conditions divorced from these rites.
但是,从仪式中发展起来的神话故事仍会不时从人们口中提及,甚至会在没有仪式需要的情况下继续演绎。
When this occurs, the first step has been taken toward theater as an autonomous activity, and thereafter entertainment and aesthetic values may gradually replace the former mystical and socially efficacious concerns.
这样,戏剧作为一项独立活动便迈出了第一步,其娱乐和审美价值开始逐渐取代人们先前对其神秘作用的关注。
 
第三段:
Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being.
尽管戏剧起源于宗教仪式的说法是目前最被大众认可的,但这并非戏剧起源的唯一定论。
Storytelling has been proposed as one alternative. Under this theory, relating and listening to stories are seen as fundamental human pleasures.
另一理论认为戏剧源于说书弹词,并认为讲述和聆听故事是人类的基本乐趣。
Thus, the recalling of an event (a hunt, battle, or other feat) is elaborated through the narrator’s pantomime and impersonation and eventually through each role being assumed by a different person.
这样,对某一事件(如打猎,战争等)的回忆被讲述者通过哑剧或模仿详细化,最终故事的每一角色都被不同的人来担任。
 
第四段:
A closely related theory sees theater as evolving out of dances that are primarily pantomimic, rhythmical or gymnastic, or from imitations of animal noises and sounds.
另外一相关理论认为,戏剧主要是从哑剧舞蹈、有节奏的舞蹈、体操、或动物声音的模仿过程中逐渐演变而来。
Admiration for the performer’s skill, virtuosity, and grace are seen as motivation for elaborating the activities into fully realized theatrical performances.
人们对于表演者技巧,精湛技术和优雅的崇拜被认为是一种激励,它促使表演者将这些活动精细化并使其最终成为夸张的戏剧表演。
 
第五段:
In addition to exploring the possible antecedents of theater, scholars have also theorized about the motives that led people to develop theater.
除了探寻戏剧起源之外,一些学者还关注人类发展戏剧的动机。
Why did theater develop, and why was it valued after it ceased to fulfill the function of ritual?
为什么戏剧会发展?为什么在戏剧完全脱离宗教仪式后还被人们所欣赏?
Most answers fall back on the theories about the human mind and basic human needs.
答案源于对人类心智和基本需求的理解。
One, set forth by Aristotle in the fourth century B.C., sees humans as naturally imitative—as taking pleasure in imitating persons, things, and actions and in seeing such imitations.
一种理论在公元前4世纪由亚里士多德提出,它认为人类天生具有模仿性----通过模仿他人、他物和动作以及观看这种模仿来获得欢愉。
Another, advanced in the twentieth century, suggests that humans have a gift for fantasy, through which they seek to reshape reality into more satisfying forms than those encountered in daily life.
另一在20世纪得到发展的理论认为人类具有幻想的天赋,通过幻想人类试图重塑现实,使其变得比现实生活中所遇到的更加令人满意。
Thus, fantasy or fiction (of which drama is one form) permits people to objectify their anxieties and fears, confront them, and fulfill their hopes in fiction if not fact.
因此,幻想和虚拟作品允许人们将他们的焦虑、恐惧具现化,并面对它们,同时满足在现实中不能满足的愿望。
The theater, then, is one tool whereby people define and understand their world or escape from unpleasant realities.
这样,戏剧便成为人类定义生活,理解生活或者逃避痛苦现实的工具。
 
第六段:
But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater. Therefore, additional explanations are needed.
但是,无论是人类的模仿本能或是对幻想的嗜好都不能直接导致戏剧发展成为一门独立的艺术,因此人们需要其它的解释。
One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems.
戏剧发展的一个必要条件很可能是人类看待事物超脱性观点的形成。
For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group.
例如,这种情况的一个标志是喜剧观点的出现,因为喜剧要求人们充分地从痛苦中脱离,并将一些与社会准则相偏离的表现看做滑稽可笑的而不是视其为对群体利益的巨大威胁。
Another condition that contributes to the development of autonomous theater is the emergence of the aesthetic sense.
另一导致戏剧发展的条件是审美感的出现。
For example, some early societies ceased to consider certain rites essential to their well-being and abandoned them, nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.
例如,一些早期社会不再认为特定仪式与他们的安康息息相关从而抛弃了这些仪式,然而,他们将围绕仪式产生的神话变为口头传授传统的一部分,并且对其所具有的艺术价值而不是宗教价值进行赞美。
 

以上为资料部分内容展示,

要获取完整资料,请点击以下按钮获取。

 


相关字搜索:托福   托福阅读   托福备考   托福考试   TPO   

Copyright ©2004-2018 www.xiaoma.com All Rights Resserved 小马过河版权所有

课程咨询电话:400-920-8185 邮箱:tech@sanlischool.com

课程咨询请扫描以上二维码

关于我们 网站地图

京ICP备14009560号-3

京公网安备 11010802021370号