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小马名师赵蓓蓓:托福阅读长难句分析TPO 11-3

2014-05-06 15:36 小马过河 maxiaoyun

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摘要:为了更好的帮助同学们备考托福写作,小马过河名师赵蓓蓓为同学们讲解托福阅读长难句分析TPO 11-3,下面是具体的信息,更多信息请关注小马过河托福频道,免费咨询电话:400-0123-267。

  1、In fact, when tapes of begging tree swallows were played at an artificial swallow nest containing an egg, the egg in that “noisy” nest was taken or destroyed by predators before the egg in a nearby quiet nest in 29 of 37 trials.

  解析:when引导条件句,意为当…的时候,tree swallows意为白肚燕,一种鸟类,nest containing…中containing做后置定语修饰nest;逗号后面是真正的主句,被动形式egg was taken or destroyed by…,before引导状语从句,在…之前,最后29 of 37是一种常用表述,意为37次中的29次。

  翻译:事实上,当在一个放有一枚鸟蛋的燕子窝中播放树燕乞食的录音带时,与附近一个安静的窝中的鸟蛋相比,37次试验中有29次这个吵闹的窝中的鸟蛋被捕食者提前拿走或者是毁坏了。

  2、Further evidence for the costs of begging comes from a study of differences in the begging calls of warbler species that nest on the ground versus those that nest in the relative safety of trees.

  解析:整句话是主谓宾结构,主干为evidence comes from a study ;cone from 意为来源于,后面that引导定语从句,修饰warbler species;versus的简写是常见的VS,表示对比双方,后面的those指代前文的warbler species,后面的that同样是定语从句,修饰另种warbler species。

  翻译:进一步关于乞讨的代价的证据来自于对两种莺乞讨声的不同的研究,它们是巢在地面的莺和巢穴在相对安全的树上的莺。

  3、These higher-frequency sounds do not travel as far, and so may better conceal the individuals producing them, who are especially vulnerable to predators in their ground nests.

  解析:整句话是主谓宾结构,主干是higher-frequency sounds do not travel as far and may better conceal…;higher-frequency 是合成词,意为高频率的,逗号后面who引导定语从句修饰individuals。

  翻译:这些更高频率的声音并不能传播很远,所以能更好地隐藏它的发出者,尤其是那些在地面上容易被掠食者供给的个体。

  4、The hypothesis that begging calls have evolved properties that reduce their potential for attracting predators yields a prediction: baby birds of species that experience high rates of nest predation should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency than nestlings of other species less often victimized by nest predators.

  解析:第一个that引导定语从句,修饰hypothesis,第二个that同样引导定义从句,但修饰的是properties,冒号前面的主句是主谓宾结构:The hypothesis have evolved properties;冒号后面是解释说明的作用,不影响主句的意思,冒号后面这句话是一个比较关系,主句是baby birds that …should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency than nestlings of…,句中that一道定语从句修饰species。less often victimized by nest predators…中victimized by被动语态做后置定语,修饰other species。

  翻译:这个假说表示乞讨声已经进化出来了些特性,这些特性降低了他们预期吸引侵略者的程度:经历多次侵袭的雏鸟应该比其他较少受到攻击的雏鸟产生更柔和的更高频率乞讨信号。

  5、This prediction was supported by data collected in one survey of 24 species from an Arizona forest, more evidence that predator pressure favors the evolution of begging calls that are hard to detect and pinpoint.

  解析:逗号前面是一个被动形式,主干为This prediction was supported by…,collected做后置定语修饰data;逗号后面,more evidence that…中that引导同位语从句,起到解释说明的作用,句中calls that are …里that引导定语从句,修饰calls.

  翻译:这个预测通过搜集的数据被支持,这些数据是观察24个来自于亚马逊森林的物种得来的,即更多的证据关于侵略者压力迫使了乞讨声的进化使得它们很难被探测和查明。

  6、One possibility is that a noisy baby bird provides accurate signals of its real hunger and good health, making it worthwhile for the listening parent to give it food in a nest where several other offspring are usually available to be fed.

  解析:逗号前面主句是主系表结构,One possibility is that…,that引导表语从句;逗号后面making…做结果状语,worthwhile for意为值得做,it指代noisy baby,a nest where …where在这里引导定语从句,修饰nest,available to be fed是被动形式。

  翻译:一种可能性是雏鸟的嘈杂声提供了准确的饥饿和健康的信号,使得听到的父母们能够在众多其他嗷嗷待哺的还孩子把食物给他们。

  7、When experimentally deprived baby robins are placed in a nest with normally fed siblings, the hungry nestlings beg more loudly than usual—but so do their better-fed siblings, though not as loudly as the hungrier birds.

  解析:when引导条件状语从句,主句是后面the hungry nestlings beg more loudly than usual,be placed意为被放置;破折号后的内容起解释说明的作用,so do…这里是一个常用表达,意为…也…;后面though引导让步状语,其中as …as表示与…一样。

  翻译:当我们人为地剥夺了知更鸟与其他伙伴吃食的位置时,这个饥饿的雏鸟乞讨的声音要比通常的情况更大,但是那些喂养的很好的伙伴也发出很大的声音,即使声音不如饥饿的雏鸟那么大。

  8、If this hypothesis is true, then it follows that nestlings should adjust the intensity of their signals in relation to the signals produced by their nestmates, who are competing for parental attention.

  解析:if引导条件句,真正的主句是后边it…,it指代这个假说,主句结构是主谓宾it follows that…,that引导后面的宾语从句;adjust意为调整,in relation to常用短语,意为关于;逗号后面who引导定语从句,修饰前面的nest mates,competing for意为为…而斗争。

  翻译:如果这个假说是正确的,它便表明了雏鸟应调整它们信号的强度与同伴们发出的相关,它们都是在为父母的注意而却竞争。

  9、Indeed, if you take baby tree swallows out of a nest for an hour feeding half the set and starving the other half, when the birds are replaced in the nest, the starved youngsters beg more loudly than the fed birds, and the parent birds feed the active beggars more than those who beg less vigorously.

  解析:if引导条件句,feeding和starving这里都是做伴随状语,后面when仍然引导条件句当…的时候,真正的主句是后面the starved youngsters beg more loudly than the fed birds, and …;those who…中those指代birds,who引导定义从句修饰those(birds)。

  翻译:的确,如果你把雏莺从巢穴里拿走一个小时,喂养一半,使另一半挨饿,当雏鸟放回到巢穴里,那些饥饿的雏鸟比喂过的发出更大的乞讨声,父母们将会喂养那些更积极的乞讨者。

  10、The answer lies apparently not in the increased energy costs of exaggerated begging—such energy costs are small relative to the potential gain in calories—but rather in the damage that any successful cheater would do to its siblings, which share genes with one another.

  解析:句中破折号中间是插入成分,用于解释说明,句子的真正主干是The answer lies not in the increased energy costs but rather in the damage,damage后的that引导定语从句修饰damage,逗号后面which引导定语从句修饰siblings;插入句中be relative to是固定用法,意为关于…。

  翻译:答案明显不在于夸张的乞讨需要高能量消耗—这些能量和将要获得的能量相比是很少的——而是在于任何一个成功的欺骗者会对和它有同样基因的亲缘造成伤害。

  11、Therefore, a begging nestling that secures food at the expense of its siblings might actually leave behind fewer copies of its genes overall than it might otherwise.

  解析:a begging nestling that…that引导定语从句修饰前面的a begging nestling,真正的主句是 a begging nestling might leave its genes ;at the expense of固定用法,意为以…为代价,最后的might在这里意为应该。

  翻译:因此,一个以自己同胞为代价确保食物的雏鸟实际上会留下比原本应该的更少的基因。

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