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小马名师赵蓓蓓:托福阅读长难句分析TPO 11-3

2014-05-06 15:36 小马过河 maxiaoyun


摘要:为了更好的帮助同学们备考托福写作,小马过河名师赵蓓蓓为同学们讲解托福阅读长难句分析TPO 11-3,下面是具体的信息,更多信息请关注小马过河托福频道,免费咨询电话:400-0123-267。

  1、In fact, when tapes of begging tree swallows were played at an artificial swallow nest containing an egg, the egg in that “noisy” nest was taken or destroyed by predators before the egg in a nearby quiet nest in 29 of 37 trials.

  解析:when引导条件句,意为当…的时候,tree swallows意为白肚燕,一种鸟类,nest containing…中containing做后置定语修饰nest;逗号后面是真正的主句,被动形式egg was taken or destroyed by…,before引导状语从句,在…之前,最后29 of 37是一种常用表述,意为37次中的29次。


  2、Further evidence for the costs of begging comes from a study of differences in the begging calls of warbler species that nest on the ground versus those that nest in the relative safety of trees.

  解析:整句话是主谓宾结构,主干为evidence comes from a study ;cone from 意为来源于,后面that引导定语从句,修饰warbler species;versus的简写是常见的VS,表示对比双方,后面的those指代前文的warbler species,后面的that同样是定语从句,修饰另种warbler species。


  3、These higher-frequency sounds do not travel as far, and so may better conceal the individuals producing them, who are especially vulnerable to predators in their ground nests.

  解析:整句话是主谓宾结构,主干是higher-frequency sounds do not travel as far and may better conceal…;higher-frequency 是合成词,意为高频率的,逗号后面who引导定语从句修饰individuals。


  4、The hypothesis that begging calls have evolved properties that reduce their potential for attracting predators yields a prediction: baby birds of species that experience high rates of nest predation should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency than nestlings of other species less often victimized by nest predators.

  解析:第一个that引导定语从句,修饰hypothesis,第二个that同样引导定义从句,但修饰的是properties,冒号前面的主句是主谓宾结构:The hypothesis have evolved properties;冒号后面是解释说明的作用,不影响主句的意思,冒号后面这句话是一个比较关系,主句是baby birds that …should produce softer begging signals of higher frequency than nestlings of…,句中that一道定语从句修饰species。less often victimized by nest predators…中victimized by被动语态做后置定语,修饰other species。


  5、This prediction was supported by data collected in one survey of 24 species from an Arizona forest, more evidence that predator pressure favors the evolution of begging calls that are hard to detect and pinpoint.

  解析:逗号前面是一个被动形式,主干为This prediction was supported by…,collected做后置定语修饰data;逗号后面,more evidence that…中that引导同位语从句,起到解释说明的作用,句中calls that are …里that引导定语从句,修饰calls.


  6、One possibility is that a noisy baby bird provides accurate signals of its real hunger and good health, making it worthwhile for the listening parent to give it food in a nest where several other offspring are usually available to be fed.

  解析:逗号前面主句是主系表结构,One possibility is that…,that引导表语从句;逗号后面making…做结果状语,worthwhile for意为值得做,it指代noisy baby,a nest where …where在这里引导定语从句,修饰nest,available to be fed是被动形式。


  7、When experimentally deprived baby robins are placed in a nest with normally fed siblings, the hungry nestlings beg more loudly than usual—but so do their better-fed siblings, though not as loudly as the hungrier birds.

  解析:when引导条件状语从句,主句是后面the hungry nestlings beg more loudly than usual,be placed意为被放置;破折号后的内容起解释说明的作用,so do…这里是一个常用表达,意为…也…;后面though引导让步状语,其中as …as表示与…一样。


  8、If this hypothesis is true, then it follows that nestlings should adjust the intensity of their signals in relation to the signals produced by their nestmates, who are competing for parental attention.

  解析:if引导条件句,真正的主句是后边it…,it指代这个假说,主句结构是主谓宾it follows that…,that引导后面的宾语从句;adjust意为调整,in relation to常用短语,意为关于;逗号后面who引导定语从句,修饰前面的nest mates,competing for意为为…而斗争。


  9、Indeed, if you take baby tree swallows out of a nest for an hour feeding half the set and starving the other half, when the birds are replaced in the nest, the starved youngsters beg more loudly than the fed birds, and the parent birds feed the active beggars more than those who beg less vigorously.

  解析:if引导条件句,feeding和starving这里都是做伴随状语,后面when仍然引导条件句当…的时候,真正的主句是后面the starved youngsters beg more loudly than the fed birds, and …;those who…中those指代birds,who引导定义从句修饰those(birds)。


  10、The answer lies apparently not in the increased energy costs of exaggerated begging—such energy costs are small relative to the potential gain in calories—but rather in the damage that any successful cheater would do to its siblings, which share genes with one another.

  解析:句中破折号中间是插入成分,用于解释说明,句子的真正主干是The answer lies not in the increased energy costs but rather in the damage,damage后的that引导定语从句修饰damage,逗号后面which引导定语从句修饰siblings;插入句中be relative to是固定用法,意为关于…。


  11、Therefore, a begging nestling that secures food at the expense of its siblings might actually leave behind fewer copies of its genes overall than it might otherwise.

  解析:a begging nestling that…that引导定语从句修饰前面的a begging nestling,真正的主句是 a begging nestling might leave its genes ;at the expense of固定用法,意为以…为代价,最后的might在这里意为应该。



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