您的位置:三立在线 > 托福频道页 > 托福阅读 > 三立在线老托福阅读100篇送上
400-920-8185

三立在线老托福阅读100篇送上

2015-05-28 14:04 三立在线 admin

分享到:0

摘要:有关老托福阅读100篇的内容网上有不少,但是小编敢肯定,绝对没有一本内容像这本所给出的内容详细,不少学生就是直接就将文章挡下来,也不做修改就上传了,本文上传的内容是由三立在线名师修改、完善后发给大家,需要的考生可以过来看一下哦!

咨询详情

托福写作

  老托福阅读100篇部分内容:EARLY CINEMA

  The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial "peepshow" format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater. In the peepshow format, a film was viewed through a small opening in a machine that was created for that purpose. Thomas Edison's peepshow device, the Kinetoscope, was introduced to the public in 1894. It was designed for use in Kinetoscope parlors, or arcades, which contained only a few individual machines and permitted only one customer to view a short, 50-foot film at any one time. The first Kinetoscope parlors contained five machines. For the price of 25 cents (or 5 cents per machine), customers moved from machine to machine to watch five different films (or, in the case of famous prizefights, successive rounds of a single fight).

  These Kinetoscope arcades were modeled on phonograph parlors, which had proven successful for Edison several years earlier. In the phonograph parlors, customers listened to recordings through individual ear tubes, moving from one machine to the next to hear different recorded speeches or pieces of music. The Kinetoscope parlors functioned in a similar way. Edison was more interested in the sale of Kinetoscopes (for roughly $1,000 apiece) to these parlors than in the films that would be run in them (which cost approximately $10 to $15 each). He refused to develop projection technology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors would purchase only one machine-a projector-from him instead of several.

  Exhibitors, however, wanted to maximize their profits, which they could do more readily by projecting a handful of films to hundreds of customers at a time (rather than one at a time) and by charging 25 to 50 cents admission. About a year after the opening of the first Kinetoscope parlor in 1894, showmen such as Louis and Auguste Lumiere, Thomas Armat and Charles Francis Jenkins, and Orville and Woodville Latham (with the assistance of Edison's former assistant, William Dickson) perfected projection devices. These early projection devices were used in vaudeville theaters, legitimate theaters, local town halls, makeshift storefront theaters, fairgrounds, and amusement parks to show films to a mass audience.

  With the advent of projection in 1895-1896, motion pictures became the ultimate form of mass consumption. Previously, large audiences had viewed spectacles at the theater, where vaudeville, popular dramas, musical and minstrel shows, classical plays, lectures, and slide-and-lantern shows had been presented to several hundred spectators at a time. But the movies differed significantly from these other forms of entertainment, which depended on either live performance or (in the case of the slide-and-lantern shows) the active involvement of a master of ceremonies who assembled the final program.

  Although early exhibitors regularly accompanied movies with live acts, the substance of the movies themselves is mass-produced, prerecorded material that can easily be reproduced by theaters with little or no active participation by the exhibitor. Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited. What audiences came to see was the technological marvel of the movies; the lifelike reproduction of the commonplace motion of trains, of waves striking the shore, and of people walking in the street; and the magic made possible by trick photography and the Proofread By Miffy and Alex  manipulation of the camera.

  With the advent of projection, the viewer's relationship with the image was no longer private,as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.

  参考译文:

  电影院的播放技术从最初的西洋镜形式演变为将影像投影到幽暗的影院屏幕,这一转变使得电影 院大众化消费成为可能。在通过西洋镜播放电影的年代里,人们只能通过播放仪器的一个专门设置的小窗口来看电影。到了1894 年,托马斯·爱迪生发明的活动电影放映机公布于众,这种放映机仅适用于活动电影放映室或电影娱乐城。它里面仅包含少量的独立播放器,每次仅允许......

  以上就是有关老托福阅读100篇的相关内容介绍,在接下来的托福考试过程中我们会陆续为大家上传最新内容,需要的考生可以直接通过点击页面中的免费下载按钮获取完整版哦!

    相关阅读:

    实现托福阅读25分-30分的经典阅读11篇【pdf下载】

    托福阅读红色DELTA6套全部答案【pdf】

    新托福阅读艺术类文章大汇总



相关字搜索:老托福阅读100篇送上   托福阅读   

Copyright ©2004-2018 www.xiaoma.com All Rights Resserved 三立在线版权所有

课程咨询电话:400-808-3771 邮箱:tech@sanlischool.com

课程咨询请扫描以上二维码

关于我们 网站地图

京ICP备14009560号-3

京公网安备 11010802021370号