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托福阅读TPO30原文+答案解析+译文

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摘要:网上有关托福阅读TPO的资料有不少,但是不一定会适合你,原因是那些个内容可能里面只有有关和题目,甚至有的题目都没有,更别说答案解析的,为了弥补这一不足,小编特备来为大家分享一下自己整理的这一套资料,需要的不要吝啬,猛戳下载哦!

  托福阅读TPO30原文+答案解析+译文:

  Role of Play in Development

  Play is easier to define with examples than with concepts. In any case, in animals it consists of leaping, running, climbing, throwing, wrestling, and other movements, either along, with objects, or with other animals. Depending on the species, play may be primarily for social interaction, exercise, or exploration. One of the problems in providing a clear definition of play is that it involves the same behaviors that take place in other circumstance--dominance, predation, competition, and real fighting. Thus, whether play occurs or not depends on the intention of the animals, and the intentions are not always clear from behaviors alone.

  Play appears to be a developmental characteristic of animals with fairly sophisticated nervous systems, mainly birds and mammals. Play has been studied most extensively in primates and canids (dogs). Exactly why animals play is still a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not be the same for every species that plays. Determining the functions of play is difficult because the functions may be long-term, with beneficial effects not showing up until the animal's adulthood.

  Play is not without considerable costs to the individual animal. Play is usually very active, involving movement in space and, at times, noisemaking. Therefore, it results in the loss of fuel or energy that might better be used for growth or for building up fat stores in a young animal. Another potential cost of this activity is greater exposure to predators since play is attention-getting behavior. Great activities also increase the risk of injury in slipping or falling.

  The benefits of play must outweigh costs, or play would not have evolved, according to Darwin' s theory. Some of the potential benefits relate directly to the healthy development of the brain and nervous system. In one research study, two groups of young rats were raised under different conditions. One group developed in an "enriched" environment, which allowed the rats to interact with other rats, play with toys, and receive maze training. The other group lived in an "impoverished" environment in individual cages in a dimly lit room with little stimulation. At the end of the experiments, the results showed that the actual weight of the brains of the impoverished rats was less than that of those raised in the enriched environment (though they were fed the same diets). Other studies have shown that greater stimulation not only affects the size of the brain but also increase the number of connections between the nerve cells. Thus, active play may provide necessary stimulation to the growth of synaptic connections in the brain, especially the cerebellum, which is responsible for motor functioning and movements.

  Play also stimulates the development of the muscle tissues themselves and may provide the opportunities to practice those movements needed for survival. Prey species, like young deer or goats, for example, typically play by performing sudden flight movements and turns, whereas predator species, such as cats, practice stalking, pouncing, and biting.

  Play allows a young animal to explore its environment and practice skill in comparative safety since the surrounding adults generally do not expect the young to deal with threats or predators. Play can also provide practice in social behaviors needed for courtship and mating. Learning appropriate social behaviors is especially important for species that live in groups, like young monkeys that needed to learn to control selfishness and aggression and to understand the give-and-take involved in social groups. They need to learn how to be dominant and submissive because each monkey might have to play either role in the future. Most of these things are learned in the long developmental periods that primates have, during which they engage in countless play experiences with their peers.

  There is a danger, of course, that play may be misinterpreted or not recognized as play by others, potentially leading to aggression. This is especially true when play consists of practicing normal aggressive or predator behaviors. Thus, many species have evolved clear signals to delineate playfulness. Dogs, for example, will wag their tails, get down their front legs, and stick their behinds in the air to indicate "what follows is just for play."

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  Paragraph 1: Play is easier to define with examples than with concepts. In any case, in animals it consists of leaping, running, climbing, throwing, wrestling, and other movements, either along, with objects, or with other animals. Depending on the species, play may be primarily for social interaction, exercise, or exploration. One of the problems in providing a clear definition of play is that it involves the same behaviors that take place in other circumstance--dominance, predation, competition, and real fighting. Thus, whether play occurs or not depends on the intention of the animals, and the intentions are not always clear from behaviors alone.

  1.According to paragraph 1, why is play difficult to define?

  O Play must be defined with concepts, not examples.

  O Play behavior often looks like nonplay behavior

  O Play often occurs in the presence of animals that are not playing

  O Play occurs independently of an animal’s intentions

  Paragraph 2: Play appears to be a developmental characteristic of animals with fairly sophisticated nervous systems, mainly birds and mammals. Play has been studied most extensively in primates and canids (dogs). Exactly why animals play is still a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not be the same for every species that plays. Determining the functions of play is difficult because the functions may be long-term, with beneficial effects not showing up until the animal's adulthood.

  2.According to paragraph 2, which of the following presents a particular challenge to researchers who study play behavior in animals

  O The delay between activities and the benefits the animal derives from them.

  O The difficulty in determining which animal species play and which do not.

  O The fact that for most animals, there is no clear transition from youth to full adulthood.

  O The lack of research on the play behavior of animals other than canids and primates.

  Paragraph 3: Play is not without considerable costs to the individual animal. Play is usually very active, involving movement in space and, at times, noisemaking. Therefore, it results in the loss of fuel or energy that might better be used for growth or for building up fat stores in a young animal. Another potential cost of this activity is greater exposure to predators since play is attention-getting behavior. Great activities also increase the risk of injury in slipping or falling.

  3.The word “considerable” in the passage is closest in the meaning to

  O Initial

  O Practical

  O Eventually

  O Significant

  4.According to paragraph 3, each of the following is a cost to animals that engage in play EXCEPT

  O exposure to predators

  O a buildup of fat stores

  O a loss of fuel that could be used for growth

  O risk of injury from slipping or falling

  Paragraph 4: The benefits of play must outweigh costs, or play would not have evolved, according to Darwin' s theory. Some of the potential benefits relate directly to the healthy development of the brain and nervous system. In one research study, two groups of young rats were raised under different conditions. One group developed in an "enriched" environment, which allowed the rats to interact with other rats, play with toys, and receive maze training. The other group lived in an "impoverished" environment in individual cages in a dimly lit room with little stimulation. At the end of the experiments, the results showed that the actual weight of the brains of the impoverished rats was less than that of those raised in the enriched environment (though they were fed the same diets). Other studies have shown that greater stimulation not only affects the size of the brain but also increase the number of connections between the nerve cells. Thus, active play may provide necessary stimulation to the growth of synaptic connections in the brain, especially the cerebellum, which is responsible for motor functioning and movements.

  5.Why does the author include the comment “though they were fed the same diets”?

  O To show why rats living in impoverished environments need less food than those living in enriched environments

  O To eliminate the possibility that differences in diet were responsibly for observed differences in brain weight

  O To emphasize the point that rats were fed only the amount of food needed to keep them alive

  O To suggest that rats fed the same diet have smaller brains than those fed a varied food

  6.Paragraph 4 supports which of the following statements about an animal’s brain.

  O The heavier the brain, the richer the environment in which the animal was raised.

  O The younger the animal, the harder it is to develop new connections between nerve cells.

  O The larger the animal, the harder it is to develop new connections between nerve cells.

  O The larger the animal’s cerebellum, the larger will be the animal’s nerve cells.

  Paragraph 5: Play also stimulates the development of the muscle tissues themselves and may provide the opportunities to practice those movements needed for survival. Prey species, like young deer or goats, for example, typically play by performing sudden flight movements and turns, whereas predator species, such as cats, practice stalking, pouncing, and biting.

  7.According to paragraph 5, why might play behavior of prey species be different from those of predator species?

  O Unlike predator species, prey species use play to prevent inappropriate social behaviors, such as biting.

  O Some prey species are physically incapable of certain types of predator movements.

  O The survival of each species type is linked to particular sets of muscular movements.

  O Predator species have more opportunities to practice play behaviors than prey species.

  Paragraph 6: Play allows a young animal to explore its environment and practice skill in comparative safety since the surrounding adults generally do not expect the young to deal with threats or predators. Play can also provide practice in social behaviors needed for courtship and mating. Learning appropriate social behaviors is especially important for species that live in groups, like young monkeys that needed to learn to control selfishness and aggression and to understand the give-and-take involved in social groups. They need to learn how to be dominant and submissive because each monkey might have to play either role in the future. Most of these things are learned in the long developmental periods that primates have, during which they engage in countless play experiences with their peers.

  8.The word “comparative” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  O relative

  O temporary

  O sufficient

  O complete

  9. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  O Only monkeys that have learned to control their selfish and aggressive behaviors can be involved in social groups.

  O Selfish and aggressive animals like monkeys live in groups in order to practice appropriate social behaviors.

  O Monkeys and other social animals need to learn behaviors appropriate for their social groups.

  O Some monkeys are naturally too selfish and aggressive to understand the give-and-take of social groups, so they learn such important behaviors while young.

  10. What can be inferred from paragraph 6 about the role of adults in play activities of the young?

  O Adults help their young learn to become dominant within the social group.

  O Young animals learn how to play from the adults within their social group.

  O Adults allow the young to engage in play behaviors within a protected, sage environment.

  O The long developmental period of some animals allows adults more time to teach their young how to deal with the threats of predators.

  Paragraph 7: There is a danger, of course, that play may be misinterpreted or not recognized as play by others, potentially leading to aggression. ■This is especially true when play consists of practicing normal aggressive or predator behaviors. ■Thus, many species have evolved clear signals to delineate playfulness. ■Dogs, for example, will wag their tails, get down their front legs, and stick their behinds in the air to indicate "what follows is just for play." ■

  11. The word “potentially” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  O undoubtedly

  O possibly

  O unfortunately

  O quickly

  12. According to paragraph 7, how do some animals ensure that other animals understand that they are just playing?

  O By playing only with animals who are not predator

  O By avoiding any aspects of the play behavior that are dangerous

  O By practicing nonaggressive and non-predatory behaviors

  O By using a set of signals that occurs only in play

  13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

  With messages such as those, even dogs that are strangers to each other can be playing within a few minutes.

  Where would the sentence best fit?

  14.Directions: an introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary be selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

  Play appears to be a developmental characteristic of animals with fairly sophisticated nervous systems, mainly birds and mammals.

  Answer Choices

  O Although play often resembles aggression, flight, or other purposeful activities, researchers do not degree on the reasons for and functions of play

  O Although many animals develop physically from play, too many young animals become victims of their natural predators while playing.

  O Animals such as rats, dogs, deer, goats and monkeys learn how to be both dominant and submissive during play activities so that they will fit in better with their adult social groups.

  O The function of play is still debated in the research literature primarily because each animal species uses so few of the many available types of play behavior.

  O Energy expenditure and security risks are some of the costs to animals of play behavior, but the costs are not so great that they outweigh the long-term benefits of play to the species.

  O As experiments and observations have shown, animals that play at some stages of their development obtain neurological, muscular, or social benefits from the play behaviors.

  托福阅读TPO30原文参考答案:

  1.○2  2.○1  3.○4  4.○2  5.○2  6.○1  7.○3  8.○1  9.○3  10.○3  11.○2  12.○4  13.○4

  14. Although play often resembles …

  Energy expenditure and …

  As experiments and …

  托福阅读TPO30原文答案解析:

  第一题,B,细节题。根据difficult to define定位到:One of the problems in providing a clear definition of play is that it involves the same behaviors that take place in other circumstance---dominance, predation, competition, and real fighting. 定义玩耍的一个问题就是玩耍包含很多发生在其他环境中的相似的行为——统治、捕食、竞争和真实的搏斗。

  句子中的same behavior应该理解为相似的行为,因为后面明显是非play的时候,所以不可能是完全相同的play behavior。那么这句话表明,难于定义其实就是其他行为也会和玩耍的行为一样。所以对应的答案就是B。

  第二题,A,细节题。根据challenge to researchers定位到:Exactly why animals play is still a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not be the same for every species that plays. still a matter debated表明这个话题仍旧需要研究,也就是challenge。动物玩耍的准确原因仍旧是在学术文章中被争论的,并且每一个物种玩耍的原因可能都不同。但是没有选项与这句话对应,所以看下一句:Determining the functions of play is difficult because the functions may be long-term, with beneficial effects not showing up until the animal’s adulthood. 决定玩耍的功能很困难,因为这些功能可能是长期的,伴随着的有益效果可能直到动物成年才会展现出来。根据这句话就指出,因为动作发生后很久才能看到增益,所以研究起来比较难,也就对应着A选项。

  第三题,D,词汇题。considerable的意思是“相当的,显著的”,所以和D选项相同。

  第四题,B,选非题。根据cost定位到段落第一句话:Play is not without considerable costs to the individual animal. 玩耍对于个体来说并不是没有显著的代价。这句话明显是一个段首的主旨句,所以推断本段可能都在论述cost,那么这个时候根据选项来回文章定位会更快。

  A选项,根据predator定位到:Another potential cost of this activity is greater exposure to predators since play is attention-getting behavior. 这个活动的另一个潜在代价就是更可能被暴露在天敌之下,因为玩耍是很吸引注意力的一种行为。根据这句话A选项与原文相同,不选;B选项,根据fat stores定位到:Therefore, it results in the loss of fuel or energy that might better be used for growth or for building up fat stores in a young animal. 所以,它导致能量的丢失,这些能量应该更好地被用于生长或积累脂肪储存。这句话明显表明,能量丢失,也就是脂肪积累会减少,所以B选项直接相反,也就作为这道题的答案;C选项,定位句与B选项相同,可以得出能量丢失,所以C与原文相同,不选;D选项,根据injury、slipping、falling定位到:Great activities also increase the risk of injury in slipping or falling. 活动多同样会提高滑倒或摔倒所带来的危险;与D选项完全相同,所以D不选。

  第五题,B,修辞目的题。先找到这句话:At the end of the experiments, the results showed that the actual weight of the brains of the impoverished rats was less than that of those raised in the enriched environment (though they were fed the same diets). 在这个实验的最后,结果展示出处于匮乏的环境的老鼠的大脑真实重量要比那些在丰富多彩的环境中的老鼠的大脑要小(虽然两者被喂养了相同的食物)。这句话表明,文章中提到了一个实验,这个实验最后的结论在这句话中表述了出来。句子的最后括号中的内容,也就是题目问的句子,一般是起到补充说明的作用。这个实验得出的结论就是这些老鼠大脑重量不同是因为它们所处的环境不同,而不会是因为食物量的不同,因为它们都被给了同样量的食物。那么给出括号内的内容就是为了说明这些老鼠大脑重量的不同不会是因为食物量的不同,也就是消除了由食物量不同而导致大脑重量不同的可能性。所以,答案就是B。

  第六题,A,细节题。本题最快捷的做法就是根据上一题所在的句子得出结论:At the end of the experiments, the results showed that the actual weight of the brains of the impoverished rats was less than that of those raised in the enriched environment (though they were fed the same diets). 在这个实验的最后,结果展示出处于匮乏的环境的老鼠的大脑真实重量要比那些在丰富多彩的环境中的老鼠的大脑要小(虽然两者被喂养了相同的食物)。根据这句话直接可以得出,环境更丰富,大脑更沉。也就对应A选项。

  第七题,C,细节题。根据prey species和predator species定位到:Prey species, like young deer or goats, for example, typically play by performing sudden flight movements and turns, whereas predator species, such as cats, practice stalking, pouncing, and biting. 被捕食者,比如小鹿或山羊,很典型的通过突然的飞跃和转弯来玩耍,然而捕食者,比如说猫科动物,会练习潜行、扑和咬。这句话是很具体的例子,并没有明确的指出两者的不同,所以往前看:Play also stimulates the development of the muscle tissues themselves and may provide the opportunity to practice those movements needed for survival. 玩耍同样促进了肌肉组织自身的发育,并且可能提供了机会去练习那些生存所必须的运动方式。两句话连起来,捕食者与被捕食者的不同,其实就是生存方式和技能是不同的,导致玩耍的方式不同。被捕食者需要练习的都是如何逃脱,而捕食者所进行的都是如何能够捕获食物。所以,答案就是C。

  第八题,A,词汇题。comparative 相对的,相当的,所以答案是A。

  第九题,C,句子简化题。句子主干就是:Learning appropriate social behaviors is especially important in species that live in groups,后面的内容都是举例的次要成分。答案必须包含这部分信息。只有C选项意思与该主干信息一致,主干说“学习xxx很重要”,C选项说“需要去学习xxx”,主干说“在群居动物中很重要”,C选项说“群居动物需要去”,所以两句话是完全的同意替换。

  第十题,C,推断题。根据adult定位:Play allows a young animal to explore its environment and practice skills in comparative safety since the surrounding adults generally do not expect the young to deal with threats or predators. 玩耍使得小动物去探索它的环境,并且在相对安全下练习技能,因为周围的成年动物通常不希望幼崽面对危险或天敌。根据这句话,成年动物在玩耍中扮演的角色就是提供保护,也就对应的是C选项。

  第十一题,B,词汇题。potentially 潜在地,可能地,所以答案是B。

  第十二题,D,细节题。根据题目,本段第一句话就开始论述有时候会产生不理解玩耍行为:There is a danger, of course, that play may be misinterpreted or not recognized as play by others, potentially leading to aggression. 当然有一种危险就是玩耍可能被误解或者没有被其他动物识别出来,可能就会导致攻击行为。为了找到确保理解的方法,我们往下寻找:Thus, many species have evolved clear signals to delineate playfulness. 所以,很多动物进化出了明确表述玩耍的信号。所以对应的答案就是D。

  第十三题,句子插入题。根据句子中提到的those这个代词,所以前面也要提到某些messages。

  所以第三个位置前面提到的signals就是messages的同义改写。但是第三个位置后面具体提到dogs的例子,而插入的句子也在说狗,如果放在第三个位置,先提到插入的句子,之后再for example,前后会比较突兀,所以这个插入句子必须再往后放,才能构成连接关系。

  最后一句话:Dogs, for example, will wag their tails, get down on their front legs, and stick their behinds in the air to indicate “what follows is just for play.” 比如说狗,会摇尾巴,前腿跪下,并且撅起屁股来表明“接下来发生的事情仅仅为了玩耍而已”。句子放在第四个位置,those messages指代的就是狗的这些动作信号。插入的句子放在这里就补全了这个例子的信息。

  第十四题,AEF,小结题。A选项,第一段中提到:In any case, in animals it consists of leaping, running, climbing, throwing, wrestling, and other movements, either alone, with objects, or with other animals. 在很多情况中,在动物中的玩耍包括跳跃、奔跑、攀爬、扔东西、搏斗、还有其他的动作,可能是动物自己玩耍、与某件物品玩耍、或者与其他动物玩耍。One of the problems in providing a clear definition of play is that it involves the same behaviors that take place in other circumstances – dominance, predation, competition, and real fighting. 定义玩耍的一个问题就是玩耍包含很多发生在其他环境中的相似的行为——统治、捕食、竞争和真实的搏斗。这两个句子的信息与A选项的前半部分对应。第二段提到:Exactly why animals play is still a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not be the same for every species that plays. 动物玩耍的准确原因仍旧在学术领域被争论,并且原因在每个玩耍的动物中可能不相同。这个句子对应A选项的后半部分。所以A正确;B选项,原文第三段提到了玩耍可能会使动物们付出一些代价,其中一项代价就是动物可能会因为玩耍时发出的吵闹声而暴露于天敌前,但这仅是一种可能,没说很多年幼的动物已经受到伤害了,并且这个观点只是一个细节,是第三段提到的很多代价中的一个。所以B错误;C选项,根据第六段:Learning appropriate social behaviors is especially important in species that live in groups, like young monkeys that need to learn to control selfishness and aggression and to understand the give-and-take involved in social groups. They need to learn how to be dominant and submissive because each monkey might have to play either role in the future. 两句话提到猴子需要learn how to be dominant and submissive,但是文章没有提到其他的动物是否需要学习这些东西。所以C是错误的;D选项,原文第二段提到:Exactly why animals play is still a matter debated in the research literature, and the reasons may not be the same for every species that plays. Determining the functions of play is difficult because the functions may be long-term, with beneficial effects not showing up until the animal’s adulthood.这两话表明玩耍的原因和功能被争论,因为每个物种玩耍的原因不同,并且玩耍的功能可能会在很长时间以后才能显现出来,而并不是选项中说的是因为种类太少。所以D不对。E选项,第三段中提到:Therefore, it results in the loss of fuel or energy that might better be used for growth or for building up fat stores in a young animal. Another potential cost of this activity is greater exposure to predators since play is attention-getting behavior. 所以,它导致能量的丢失,这些能量应该更好地被用于生长或积累脂肪储存。这个活动的另一个潜在代价就是更可能被暴露在天敌之下,因为玩耍是很吸引注意力的一种行为。这两句话与E的前半部分相同。第四段开头提到:The benefits of play must outweigh the costs, or play would not have evolved, according to Darwin’s theory. 玩耍的移除必须要超过代价,否则根据达尔文的进化论,玩耍就不会进化出来。这句话与E选项的后半部分相同。所以E正确;F选项,该选项提到的内容,神经学上的获益在第四段的实验中有提及,同时与第五题和第六题所对应的内容相同。第五段最开始就提到玩耍会促进肌肉组织的发育。第六段与第九题的句子简化题提到的内容,描述的就是从玩耍中学到适应群体的社交行为。

  托福阅读TPO30原文参考译文:玩耍在发育中的角色

  比起单独定义玩耍的概念,用例子去解释玩耍要更容易一些。 在任何情况下,在动物间玩耍都包括了跳跃,奔跑,攀登,投掷,格斗和另外的一些动作,随之一起的也会有其他的物品或者动物。 根据物种的不同,玩耍的目的主要包括社会交往,锻炼,或者探索。 定义“玩耍”的难点之一是,玩耍过程中常常会包含一些与其他情况下相似的行为,例如在统治,捕食,竞争和搏斗中。因此,判断其是否在玩耍,要根据动物的目的来确认,常常通过行为本身很难分析其目的。

  玩耍似乎是那些有着相对复杂的神经系统的动物的一个发育,发展的特征,主要包括了鸟类和哺乳类动物。 玩耍的研究主要在灵长类和犬类之间大范围进行。 动物到底为什么要玩耍仍然在文献研究中存在争议,并且每种物种玩耍的原因也不尽相同。 确定玩耍的功能很难,因为它的功能是长期的,伴随着一些直到动物成年才会显现出来的有利影响。

  玩耍对于动物个体并非没有一定的损失。玩耍通常是非常活跃的,涉及了一些空间动作,有时也会发出声音。所以,这些都会导致一些年幼的动物的本来可以用来生长或者储存脂肪的能量流失。另一个潜在的损失,这些活动是吸引注意的行为,因此通常都会使动物暴露在捕食者的视野内。大量的运动也会增加摔倒滑倒导致受伤的危险。

  根据达尔文理论,玩耍的好处一定能抵消其损失,不然玩耍就不会一直存在并进化。其中一些潜在的好处就是直接关于动物的大脑和神经系统的健康发展。在一个研究学习中,两组小老鼠被养在不同的环境中。第一组成长在一个比较“富裕”的环境中,这样的环境使其可以与其他老鼠接触,和玩具玩儿,并且接受迷宫训练。另一组生活在“穷困” 的环境中, 它们被养在独立笼子里,只有微弱的光照和极少的刺激。最后,结果表明生活在单一环境中的老鼠的大脑重量要比生活在复杂情况下的老鼠的大脑轻(即使它们被喂养的食物一样的)。另外一些研究表明,较大的刺激不仅会影响大脑的大小,而且也会增加神经细胞间的通道数量。因此,活跃的玩耍可以为大脑中的突触连接提供必要的刺激,特别是负责运动机能的小脑。

  玩儿也会刺激肌肉组织的生长,并且能提供一些练习生存技能的机会。 被捕食的种群, 比如小鹿或者山羊,比如说,其代表动作就是突然快速逃生动作和转弯,相反捕食种群,比如猫科动物,练习潜行追踪,猛扑和撕咬。

  玩耍使得年幼的动物暴漏在环境中,并且由于周围的成年动物一般不期望孩子去处理威胁和捕食者,所以它们可以在相对安全的环境中练习技能,玩耍也可以为求爱和交配的社交行为提供练习。学习适当的社交行为特别重要,尤其是对于群居动物,比如猴子,它们需要学会控制自己的自私和攻击性,学着去懂得妥协以融入群体。它们要学习怎么去统治和顺从因为每只猴子都会在将来扮演某个角色。 大部分这类事情都在灵长类的长期的发展过程中被学习,期间它们有数不清的玩耍经验。

  当然,也有危险,就是玩耍可能会被别的动物误会,或者不被当做玩耍,潜在地造成进攻。这个情况尤其在扮演包含练习正常的侵略性或者是捕食者行为。因此,许多物种都尤其明确的信号去表明玩耍。比如狗,它们用会摇尾巴,前腿趴下,撅着屁股来表示“以下行为都是逗你玩儿的!”

  以上就是有关托福阅读TPO30原文+答案解析+译文:TPO30-2-1的内容,托福阅读31共有三篇文章我们这里就不过多介绍的,由于版块面积不允许,考生们可一点击页面中的下载按钮索取完整版内容哦!千万不要错过了。

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