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怎样让你的托福阅读速度再快一点?

2019-03-19 09:29 三立在线 admin

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摘要:阅读的重要性众所周知。它能帮助我们了解新事物,学习新词汇,激发新思维。每个人在生活中或多或少都在进行着阅读,但我们却不能说每个人都真正会阅读。人与人的阅读效率可谓千差万别。以标准化考试中的阅读测试为例,有的人能舒舒服服地看完并理解懂文章,在规定时间内从容地做对题目;有的人却只能看着倒计时瑟瑟发抖,在考

  阅读的重要性众所周知。它能帮助我们了解新事物,学习新词汇,激发新思维。每个人在生活中或多或少都在进行着阅读,但我们却不能说每个人都真正“会”阅读。人与人的阅读效率可谓千差万别。以标准化考试中的阅读测试为例,有的人能舒舒服服地看完并理解懂文章,在规定时间内从容地做对题目;有的人却只能看着倒计时瑟瑟发抖,在考试结束前胡乱勾选一番,把自己交给命运。
  很多时候,效率不高要归结于阅读速度太慢。关于阅读速度的提升我们已经有了太多的科学技巧。无论遵循哪一条,只要坚持训练,循序渐进,一定会有所斩获。今天我要和大家分享的是一种叫“grouping”的阅读方法。我们可以把它直接理解为“群组阅读”。它也被叫做“chunking reading”或者“reading in clusters”。这种技能让我们能够“combine a group of words for processing in the brain and comprehend that group of words as a whole.”而不只是“read a single word at a time”。
  在做英语阅读的时候,很多人习惯在一个时间单元内只看一个单词,去理解单个单词的意思。等前一个单词在脑海中“翻译”好后再去处理下一个单词。这种方式极大地拉低了阅读速率。特别是遇到多义词或者词组的时候,这种方式还可能导致内容理解出现偏差。而实际上,人脑有着更高速的处理信息的能力,我们完全可以把很多杂碎部件归为一个个整体。这就我们在观看一本杂志封面或者广告海报时,可以一眼从整体上抓取它的主要信息和若干个重点细节信息。而不用把一张图分割成四个部分,现看完左上角,再看右上角,然后左下角,再右下角,最后拼起来才知道它在讲着什么。更何况很多时候单个部分的意思并不明确。比如:
  Do
  Do not
  Do not put
  Do not put all
  Do not put all your
  Do not put all your eggs
  Do not put all your eggs in
  Do not put all your eggs in one
  Do not put all your eggs in one basket.
  你不读到最后一个词根本不知道整句话想表达的意思是什么。所以之前在众多单个词汇上所耗费的单个时间是没有太大意义的。我们可以尝试着把它“grouping”起来,作为一个整体去阅读理解,这样不仅可以提速,而且可以提升阅读的精准程度。
  这种群组阅读方式对速度有多大的改善作用呢?国外有专门的研究统计过,一般的读者在经过一段时间训练后,可以在一分钟内迅速阅读完700-1000字的文章。700-1000是什么个概念?大概就相当于一篇托福阅读文章的长度。试想一下,如果你能在一分钟内就能把一篇限时二十分钟的托福阅读读个大概,那岂不是美事一件?
  当然,由于托福阅读本身的词汇和句法难度,又夹杂着一定的专业学科知识,我并不奢求大家真的只用一分钟来理解文章。但毫不夸张地说,群组阅读比逐词阅读至少能提升1-2倍的速度。举个例子,我们试着看一下这个句子:
  The big fat cat jumped over the spiky large fence.
  如果一个单词一个单词地读,我们的脑子要分别处理十个单词,假设每个单词用一秒来进行阅读和信息处理,整个句子将花费长达十秒的时间!
  接下来我们把它分成若干个“chunks”来看一下:
  (The big fat cat)(jumped over)(the spiky large fence)
  在这个例子中,我们把上面那个句子分成了三个带括号的版块,如果我们处理每个版块的时间也是一秒钟,那么整个句子只需要耗费三秒钟的时间!这比之前快了许多,而且重要的是我们仍然看过了每个单词。
  光知道方法并不能保证你就掌握了如何去进行grouping。适当的练习是基本保障。已经动心的同学们现在就可以操练起来了。如果不知从何做起,下面是一些小的tips:
  1. 尝试着扩大目光扫射的范围
  2. 减少在单个词汇上停留的时间
  3. 优先专注于名词和动词
  4. 适当忽略填充词(filler words)
  5. 尽量把意思接近或关系紧密的内容放在同一个组群里
  6. 每天坚持10-15分钟
  7. 阅读材料由易到难,群组长度由2个单词逐步扩到3-5个单词甚至更多
  文章的最后,就让我们一起用grouping的方式来阅读一个托福阅读文章的片段吧!
  逐字版:
  The first clear steps in the rise of the first civilizations took place in the fourth and third millennia B.C. in Mesopotamia, northern Africa, India, and China. How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain, but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages. By means of their military prowess, dominant personalities, or political talents, these people gradually emerge as the leaders of that community. In time, the “big men” become formal symbols of authority and pass on that authority to others within their own family. As the communities continue to grow in size and material wealth, the “big men” assume hereditary status, and their allies and family members are transformed into a hereditary monarchy.
  群组版:
  The first clear steps  in the rise of the first civilizations took place in the fourth and third millennia B.C. in Mesopotamia, northern Africa, India, and China. How the first governments took shape in these areas is not certain, but anthropologists studying the evolution of human communities in various parts of the world have discovered that one common stage in the process is the emergence of what are called “big men” within a single village or a collection of villages. By means of their military prowess, dominant personalities, or political talents, these people gradually emerge as the leaders of that community. In time,the “big men” become formal symbols of authority and pass on that authority to others within their own family. As the communities continue to grow in size and material wealth, the “big men” assume hereditary status, and their allies and family members are transformed into a hereditary monarchy.
  大家可以分别计时来体验一下两种不同阅读方式带给你的感受。
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