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托福写作语言的常见问题

2018-10-10 16:21 小马过河 admin

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摘要:语言技能是托福写作考试中的重头戏,语言表达的优劣直接影响考生的得分档次。小编就为大家分享托福写作语言的常见问题,希望对大家有所帮助。 一、词汇失误 Example 1: Reading can increase my words, rich my knowledge and enlarge my eyesight. 这是考生在描述读书的好处,其优点在于在句子结构方面尽力打造排比结构。然而,词汇失误严重影响句子理解和

  语言技能是托福写作考试中的重头戏,语言表达的优劣直接影响考生的得分档次。小编就为大家分享托福写作语言的常见问题,希望对大家有所帮助。

  一、词汇失误

  Example 1: Reading can increase my words, rich my knowledge

  and enlarge my eyesight.

  这是考生在描述读书的好处,其优点在于在句子结构方面尽力打造排比结构。然而,词汇失误严重影响句子理解和整体效果。"读书可增大词汇量,增长知识,开阔眼界。"本句中词汇

  失误频繁出现,如:increase, words, rich ; enlarge my eyesight令人费解。建议可做如下

  修改:

  Revised: Reading can enlarge my vocabulary, enrich my knowledge and broaden my horizons. Example 2: Sometimes I play with friends from my school.

  此句是典型的Chinglish,在中文中,可以说"和朋友玩",但是不可对应为英文的“play with

  friends”,其意思是把朋友当成了玩具。play用作不及物动词时,常接介词with,表示"玩; 玩耍"。例如:

  The little boy is playing with a yoyo.

  Don't play with fire. It is very dangerous.

  二、句子层面的常见失误

  考生在语法方面的错误主要表现为"主谓不一致、可数名词单复数错误、时态错误、限定动

  词和非限定动词错误"等,这里就不逐一赘述了。此外,还有一些句子层面的常见问题值得我们关注,现列举如下:

  1. Run-on Sentences (串句)

  串句是不用连词和标点而把两个(或以上)独立的句子串在一起的错误表达。有些串句是不用任何标点间隔两个甚至更多的句子;有些串句是在该用句号时滥用逗号,忽略了英语语言

  中的逗号本身没有连接句子的功能这一原则。

  例如:

  Rita decided to stop smoking she didn't want to die of lung cancer.

  The exam was postponed the class was canceled as well.

  ★修改原则

  A.把原句分成两个独立的句子。

  Rita decided to stop smoking. She didn't want to die of lung cancer.

  The exam was postponed. The class was canceled as well.

  B.用并列连词连接两个句子。

  Rita decided to stop smoking, for she didn't want to die of lung cancer.

  The exam was postponed, and the class was canceled as well.

  C.用分号连接两个句子。

  Rita decided to stop smoking; she didn't want to die of lung cancer.

  The exam was postponed; the class was canceled as well.

  2. Fragmentary sentences (破句)

  破句是把不完整的句子当作独立的子句来写作时发生的错误。常见错误包括:从属连词引起的破句,ing分词和不定式结构引起的错误,增添细节引起的破句和缺少主语的破句。

  例如:

  After I arrived in Chicago by bus. I checked into a room. Then

  I went to a diner to get something to eat.

  ★修改原则:改正从属连词引起的破句时,可以把该从句附属于其前或其后某个子句上。也可以去掉破句中的连词。

  I arrived in Chicago by bus and found a place to stay. Then I went to a diner to get something to eat.

  当然,对于其它形式的破句,可以根据不同情况给予改正。如,改正-ing结构引起的破句时,可以把它附属在其前或其后的某个句子上,可以添加主语,把-ing形式改变成谓语动词,把

  being形式改成作谓语的be动词(is, are, was, were, am

  );改正不定式结构引起的破句时,可以把它附属于前句上;改正添加细节引起的破句时,可以把它附属在前面一个表达完整思想的句子上;可以给破句加上主语和动词使它成为一个独立子句;可以尽可能改变词序,辅以

  增减词,使破句成为前句的组成部分;改正缺少主语的破句时,可以把它附属于前句上,也可以给破句添加主语(通常是指代前句主语的代词形式)。

  3. Faulty Parallelism (错误的平行结构)

  两个(或以上)意思并列的成份(包括单词、词组、从句和句子)在写作时要用同等的语法形式表达,否则就破坏了其平行结构。

  例如:

  Many people choose air transportation because it is fast, offers convenience, and it is not very expensive.

  ★修改原则

  使句子中意思并列的成份在结构上并行的关键是用同等的语法形式表达这些成份。修改平行结构错误时,关键要找到平行点(单词、词组、从句或句子),然后删去引起不平行的多余

  成份或添加所缺成份。

  Many people choose air transportation because it is fast,convenient, and inexpensive.

  4. Misplaced Modifiers (修饰语错置)

  修饰语可以是单词、词组或从句。修饰语位置不当,就无法清楚表达作者的原意,可能引发句子的歧义现象。

  Misplaced: The old man walked into the lamp post going to the optician. (Who has bad eyesight, the old man or the lamp post?)

  ★修改原则

  A.避免修饰语错置的关键是使修饰语尽可能靠近被修饰语。

  B.副词短语和时间、地点、方式等状语从句可以万无一失地置于句首。

  C.把那些很难安排位置的修饰语置于句首。

  D.避免因为一个修饰语和句子中多个成份之间存在潜在的修饰关系而引发歧义现象。

  Corrected: While going to the optician, the old man bumped into the lamp post.

  Going to the optician, the old man bumped into the lamp post.

  5. Dangling modifiers (悬垂修饰语)

  悬垂修饰错误是句子中短语(包括介词短语、分词短语、动名词短语、不定式结构)或省略句(无主句或主谓省略句)缺少修饰对象造成的。

  Dangling: Going through a red light, the traffic police on duty stopped him.

  ★修改原则

  A.明确动作的实施者,使悬垂成份所修饰的对象成为主句主语。

  B.将悬垂修饰语扩展成从句。

  Revised: While he was going through a red light, the traffic police on duty stopped him.

  Going through a red light, he was stopped by the traffic police on duty.

  以上就是托福写作中常出现的一些错误,希望可以引起考生的注意。



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